Welcome!

IoT User Interface Authors: Liz McMillan, Talend Inc., AppDynamics Blog, Pat Romanski, Wayne Ariola

Related Topics: IoT User Interface, Cloud Security

IoT User Interface: Article

Application Security in AJAX

Mind the Gap

If you have evaluated AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) for your next Web application development project, then you probably have read or heard a great deal about AJAX security concerns and the claim that AJAX increases the attack surface for hackers. If you are a skilled security developer, you might wonder whether the AJAX security problem originates in the technologies involved or whether lack of security in AJAX is a misconception. Security threats like SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), message spoofing, and failed input validation existed before in Web applications and have been solved many times since then.

At first glance, it seems that the AJAX security discussion is a retelling of the tale of the emperor's new clothes. At second glance, however, it is obvious that there is a new component in AJAX security - the rich and interactive client. If this smart client really introduces a new security threat to Web applications, then the following questions arise: What can be done today, and what needs to be done in the future, to avoid ÒkillerÓ applications built with AJAX?

The Security Dilemma
Technology alone seldom is the problem. Lack of security in an application arises because of what developers do with the underlying technologies. To build secure Web applications - and this hasn't changed since traditional Web applications - there are two aspects of equal importance to be considered: humans and technology.

The most prevalent philosophy in application security is that security should not be added as an after thought, but should be included by design and default. The latter, however, never seems to happen in this feature-driven Internet technology industry, where new technologies are continuously being born. Two schools of thought exist in security: those who know everything and those who know next to nothing. It appears that because those who know everything are accustomed to handling the shortcomings of a given technology themselves, by devising workarounds or by using third-party security frameworks, it is up to those who know next to nothing to standardize security, making it a reachable goal for everyone.

AJAX is another example of putting security last and features first. AJAX is not a new technology. Instead, it consists of existing technologies such as JavaScript, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and Extensible Markup Language (XML) to implement Web 2.0 user interfaces. The technology used for dynamics in AJAX Web-user interfaces is JavaScript. This means, however, that the available Java security features, like the JavaScript sandbox and the same origin policy, are the main security features available in AJAX.

•  Same Origin Policy: The same origin policy prevents scripts that are downloaded from a Website to access properties on a page that is downloaded from another Website. The security of the same origin policy, which ensures that malicious scripts do not hijack other loaded documents or spy on user cookies or key inputs, conflicts with another Web 2.0 wanted functionality: mashup. A mashup is an application page that consumes mixed services to build a composite Web-user interface. This type of application may need to interoperate between page fragments, even if it is downloaded from different servers and domains. Within the AJAX community and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a desire exists to loosen the same origin policy limitation for XMLHttpRequest object (XHR) requests, which, from a security perspective, would require trusted clients that do not exist today.
•  JavaScript Sandbox: JavaScript is contained in the browser execution environment and is not allowed to access either the client file system or the network, except through Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests. All that JavaScript has access to is the memory representation of the displayed browser document, called the document object model (DOM).

In JavaScript, little can be hidden from would-be hackers because all facets within a page are accessible and modifiable in the DOM tree. Exposing JavaScript source on the client, where it can be read or stolen, is not a security problem. If it were, open source software, which does not hide its implementation from viewers, would pose a huge security threat.

Client-side sources are problematic because everything is accessible in the DOM, which means that nothing can be protected on the client. Any security policy that is downloaded and enforced on the client can be read and manipulated. Obscurity is not a substitute for security. In fact, obfuscated JavaScript only helps to lock out wannabe hackers and is otherwise primarily used to increase JavaScript performance through reduced content lengths.

Where AJAX Fits in an MVC Architecture
Modern Web applications that implement the model view controller (MVC) pattern demand a separation of the application presentation from its life cycle and model. AJAX is a presentation layer technology that is used to render interactive Web-user interfaces in rich Internet applications (RIA). As an application developer, you don't write end-to-end business applications in AJAX. Instead, you use a server-side technology to handle the business logic. One of the niceties of AJAX is that it is independent of the server technology business layer. Therefore, AJAX works the same with Java, C, Perl, PLSQL, and .NET back ends. This clean separation between the presentation and business layers is a choice that every application developer should consider. Security should be implemented end-to-end, which means that all parts of the application should follow the same policy and share the same user security context. This also includes database security if databases are involved.

Security in AJAX
Unlike traditional Web applications that have a more or less static user interface, AJAX applications have an active client that uses the browser's native XHR to fetch data from a server. There are two major risks to the browser regarding client-side JavaScript: browser bombing and cross-site scripting attacks:
•  Browser bombing is the client version of a denial of service (DoS) attack. During this type of attack, the client is kept busy with JavaScript processing, such as running endless loops that fill up an array with content. When the client consumes all computing resources, the desktop hangs.
•  Cross-site scripting has two facets. The first one, which was already mentioned, is where a script downloaded from one domain tries to access properties of a page downloaded from another domain. The second facet is where developers fail to validate user input, resulting in a JavaScript that is executed when the user-added input is rendered on a Web page. Imagine a discussion forum that does not encode JavaScript content or check for SQL keywords. A hacker could, for instance, add JavaScript that performs a runtime attachment of an image tag to the page in which the src attribute references a uniform resource locator (URL) on the hacker's server. The script could, for example, append the client's cookies as a request parameter. The application user does not recognize these changes because the HTML does not flag a missing image as an error.

While client-side security protects the end user from the application, application security protects the application from the user. Protection includes enforcement of authentication, authorization, and data privacy.

Though XSS and SQL injection attacks can be handled in AJAX on the client, you should not miss the opportunity to enforce the same policy on the back end in an additional layer of defense. In traditional Web applications, request filters implemented on the HTTP server (or in the application configuration) performed pattern searches using such things as Regular Expressions on the incoming request to detect technology keywords of JavaScript and SQL. In addition, filters were used to replace special characters with their encoded equivalent, such as when replacing < with <. AJAX applications are like traditional Web applications, so the same security design patterns apply to them.

Security design patterns are recommendations of best practices to mitigate the risk of an identified threat. Patterns that exist for Web applications include defense in depth, limited view, least privileged access, checkpoint, and roles.

In addition to best security practices, there exists a sensitive balance between usability, performance, and security that needs to be considered when building AJAX applications. It is easy to risk vulnerabilities simply by annoying end users with too many security-related interruptions when they are working in an application. Such users soon turn into hackers on their mission to find a more convenient way to work with an application. AJAX applications are based on client-side JavaScript and only provide a minimum capability to maintain client-state in cookies and page variables. Unless the AJAX application is built on top of a server-side framework that manages the application state, AJAX applications risk losing state upon page reload and navigation, adding a need to re-request user security credentials.


More Stories By Frank Nimphius

Frank Nimphius is a principal product manager for application development tools at Oracle Corporation. As a conference speaker, Frank represents the Oracle J2EE development team at J2EE conferences world wide, including various Oracle user groups and the Oracle Open World conference.

Comments (1) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
navot 10/08/07 04:14:59 AM EDT

I would like to draw your attention to another alternative which is a paradigm shift for AJAX front ends. One should be aware that I am not, and do not pretend to be objective, never the less I believe that one can judge for himself. Visual WebGui is an AJAX frame work that doesn’t expose logic, data or open services on client requests and therefore is not as vulnerable as common AJAX solution. Worth a look at www.visualwebgui.com.

@CloudExpo Stories
Sensors and effectors of IoT are solving problems in new ways, but small businesses have been slow to join the quantified world. They’ll need information from IoT using applications as varied as the businesses themselves. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Roger Meike, Distinguished Engineer, Director of Technology Innovation at Intuit, showed how IoT manufacturers can use open standards, public APIs and custom apps to enable the Quantified Small Business. He used a Raspberry Pi to connect sensors...
Let’s face it, embracing new storage technologies, capabilities and upgrading to new hardware often adds complexity and increases costs. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Seth Oxenhorn, Vice President of Business Development & Alliances at FalconStor, will discuss how a truly heterogeneous software-defined storage approach can add value to legacy platforms and heterogeneous environments. The result reduces complexity, significantly lowers cost, and provides IT organizations with improved effi...
Predictive analytics tools monitor, report, and troubleshoot in order to make proactive decisions about the health, performance, and utilization of storage. Most enterprises combine cloud and on-premise storage, resulting in blended environments of physical, virtual, cloud, and other platforms, which justifies more sophisticated storage analytics. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Peter McCallum, Vice President of Datacenter Solutions at FalconStor, will discuss using predictive analytics to ...
The cloud promises new levels of agility and cost-savings for Big Data, data warehousing and analytics. But it’s challenging to understand all the options – from IaaS and PaaS to newer services like HaaS (Hadoop as a Service) and BDaaS (Big Data as a Service). In her session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Hannah Smalltree, a director at Cazena, will provide an educational overview of emerging “as-a-service” options for Big Data in the cloud. This is critical background for IT and data profes...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Father business cycles and digital consumers are forcing enterprises to respond faster to customer needs and competitive demands. Successful integration of DevOps and Agile development will be key for business success in today’s digital economy. In his session at DevOps Summit, Pradeep Prabhu, Co-Founder & CEO of Cloudmunch, covered the critical practices that enterprises should consider to seamlessly integrate Agile and DevOps processes, barriers to implementing this in the enterprise, and pr...
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
It's easy to assume that your app will run on a fast and reliable network. The reality for your app's users, though, is often a slow, unreliable network with spotty coverage. What happens when the network doesn't work, or when the device is in airplane mode? You get unhappy, frustrated users. An offline-first app is an app that works, without error, when there is no network connection.
With an estimated 50 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2020, several industries will begin to expand their capabilities for retaining end point data at the edge to better utilize the range of data types and sheer volume of M2M data generated by the Internet of Things. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and President of Infobright, will discuss the infrastructures businesses will need to implement to handle this explosion of data by providing specific use cases for filte...
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes ho...
SYS-CON Events announced today that VAI, a leading ERP software provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. VAI (Vormittag Associates, Inc.) is a leading independent mid-market ERP software developer renowned for its flexible solutions and ability to automate critical business functions for the distribution, manufacturing, specialty retail and service sectors. An IBM Premier Business Part...
With the proliferation of both SQL and NoSQL databases, organizations can now target specific fit-for-purpose database tools for their different application needs regarding scalability, ease of use, ACID support, etc. Platform as a Service offerings make this even easier now, enabling developers to roll out their own database infrastructure in minutes with minimal management overhead. However, this same amount of flexibility also comes with the challenges of picking the right tool, on the right ...
Fortunately, meaningful and tangible business cases for IoT are plentiful in a broad array of industries and vertical markets. These range from simple warranty cost reduction for capital intensive assets, to minimizing downtime for vital business tools, to creating feedback loops improving product design, to improving and enhancing enterprise customer experiences. All of these business cases, which will be briefly explored in this session, hinge on cost effectively extracting relevant data from ...
In most cases, it is convenient to have some human interaction with a web (micro-)service, no matter how small it is. A traditional approach would be to create an HTTP interface, where user requests will be dispatched and HTML/CSS pages must be served. This approach is indeed very traditional for a web site, but not really convenient for a web service, which is not intended to be good looking, 24x7 up and running and UX-optimized. Instead, talking to a web service in a chat-bot mode would be muc...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed...
As enterprises work to take advantage of Big Data technologies, they frequently become distracted by product-level decisions. In most new Big Data builds this approach is completely counter-productive: it presupposes tools that may not be a fit for development teams, forces IT to take on the burden of evaluating and maintaining unfamiliar technology, and represents a major up-front expense. In his session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Andrew Warfield, CTO and Co-Founder of Coho Data, will dis...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pythian, a global IT services company specializing in helping companies adopt disruptive technologies to optimize revenue-generating systems, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Founded in 1997, Pythian is a global IT services company that helps companies compete by adopting disruptive technologies such as cloud, Big Data, advanced analytics, and DevO...
SYS-CON Events announced today that iDevices®, the preeminent brand in the connected home industry, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. iDevices, the preeminent brand in the connected home industry, has a growing line of HomeKit-enabled products available at the largest retailers worldwide. Through the “Designed with iDevices” co-development program and its custom-built IoT Cloud Infrastruc...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Alert Logic, Inc., the leading provider of Security-as-a-Service solutions for the cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Alert Logic, Inc., provides Security-as-a-Service for on-premises, cloud, and hybrid infrastructures, delivering deep security insight and continuous protection for customers at a lower cost than traditional security solutions. Ful...
Advances in technology and ubiquitous connectivity have made the utilization of a dispersed workforce more common. Whether that remote team is located across the street or country, management styles/ approaches will have to be adjusted to accommodate this new dynamic. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Sagi Brody, Chief Technology Officer at Webair Internet Development Inc., focused on the challenges of managing remote teams, providing real-world examples that demonstrate what works and what do...