Welcome!

IoT User Interface Authors: Carmen Gonzalez, John Basso, Liz McMillan, Elizabeth White, Greg O'Connor

Related Topics: Containers Expo Blog, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Open Source Cloud, IoT User Interface, Agile Computing, @BigDataExpo

Containers Expo Blog: Article

Easily Boost Your Web Application Using nginx

The performance improvement is quite significant for serving static content

More and more Web sites and applications are being moved from Apache to nginx. While Apache is still the number one HTTP server with more than 60% on active Web sites, nginx has now taken over 2nd place in the ranking and relegated Microsoft's IIS to 3rd place. Among the top 10.000 Web sites nginx is already the leader in the field, with a market share of 40%.

And the reasons are obvious: nginx is a high-speed, lightweight HTTP server engine. The performance improvement is quite significant for serving static content. Especially at high load, nginx is much faster than Apache and consumes much less resources on the server. Thus, concurrent requests can be handled more efficiently. As a consequence, the same tasks can be fulfilled by less hardware. And every byte of memory, CPU or even server to be economized reduces your infrastructure costs.

I ran some load tests: 10.000 requests showed quite remarkable differences, even more distinct with more concurrent users. Note that with Apache the total execution time increases with the number of users, while nginx can easily handle that. For 2,000 users, nginx could process the requests almost four times faster.

While nginx uses an event-based request handling in a small number of processes, Apache is spawning new processes or threads for each request, depending on the processing mode. Apache's default multi-process (prefork) mode creates child processes for each request. Such a process is a complete instance of Apache including all linked modules. That means that even a request for static content, like an image, causes a new process to be started and the PHP module to be loaded.

Apache can also be operated in a multi-threaded (worker) mode, which creates multiple threads in fewer processes, one per request. Thus, it consumes much less memory, but the operation is no longer thread-save. Therefore modules like mod_php can't be used.

I went through the exercise of figuring out the best way to leverage nginx on an application that runs on Apache. In this blog we will cover the actual installation steps, different deployment and migration scenarios, as well as how to measure the actual performance gain.

Installing nginx
All you have to do to start boosting your application performance is to install nginx on your machine and follow some configuration rules. In this article I will be referencing an example site running Ubuntu.

sudo apt-get install nginx

No doubt, Apache provides much more functionality by supplying a broad range of mountable modules and many more options to be configured. A common way to adjust the behavior of a website is a combination of the virtual host setup and using the .htaccess file. First of all: this file doesn't exist in nginx, which is another performance bonus. Apache checks every single directory in the path of the requested file for an .htaccess file and evaluates the content if it exists. And, if not configured properly, keeping a config file together with your data could result in a severe security issue. Nginx keeps the configuration in a central place and loads the settings into memory at startup.

Even if you are not sure whether or not you really should replace Apache by nginx, you could always use both together? We will cover this later.

Migrating Configuration
There are quite some similarities, but it's important to understand the differences between the configurations. Just like Apache, nginx keeps the files in /etc/nginx/sites-available. Use a symbolic link for active configurations in /etc/nginx/sites-enabled.

First of all, create a server block for each virtual host.

server {
listen 80;
...
}

The basic setup for running a site is similar to Apache, with a slightly different syntax:

#

# Apache

#

#

# nginx

#

<VirtualHost *:80>

ServerName mysite.com
ServerAlias www.mysite.com

DocumentRoot /srv/www/mysite
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html

</VirtalHost>

server {
listen: 80;

server_name mysite.com www.mysite.com;

root /srv/www/mysite;
index index.php index.html;

}



To add specific behavior for certain requests define a location inside your server block. You can use regular expressions to select the effected requests:

server {
...

location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ @notfound;
}

location /doc/ {

alias /usr/share/doc/;

autoindex on;

allow 127.0.0.1;

deny all;

}

location /images/ {
root /media/images

}

location @notfound {

rewrite (.*) /index.php?paramstring=$1;

}

location ~ /\.ht {

deny all;

}
}

This sample configuration shows some of the setup options for server/locations. Make sure to create a config to deny .ht* files, as nginx is not doing that from scratch. Direct access to these files is automatically rejected by Apache. Note that familiar options from Apache can be found here in nginx: allow/deny, alias, rewrite, etc.

Please refer to the online documentation on nginx.org for further information.

Especially when you have multiple websites running on your server, and lots of requests causing high load, it is a good decision to move to nginx. But multiple websites, configured differently, could result in a quite high effort on migration. There are some converters available doing that job for you, but mainly they convert a .htaccess file to an nginx config. But Apache also uses configurations for virtual hosts - do not forget about these! Even if converted by a tool, I recommend checking your configurations manually before using them in a production environment!

Tip: install nginx as the primary HTTP server and leave your Apache running on a different port. Migrate your virtual servers one-by-one by creating nginx server configurations, and forward requests for not-yet-migrated websites to Apache. I'll show you how:

For my insight into nginx, and a look at Apache, click here for the full article

More Stories By Harald Zeitlhofer

Harald Zeitlhofer has 15+ years of experience as an architect and developer of enterprise ERP solutions and web applications with a main focus on efficient and performant business processes, usability and application design. As a Technology Strategist in Dynatrace's Centre of Excellence team he influences the Dynatrace product strategy by working closely with customers and driving their performance management and improvement at the front line. He is a frequent speaker at conferences and meetup groups around the world. Follow him @HZeitlhofer

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@CloudExpo Stories
"Dice has been around for the last 20 years. We have been helping tech professionals find new jobs and career opportunities," explained Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Successful digital transformation requires new organizational competencies and capabilities. Research tells us that the biggest impediment to successful transformation is human; consequently, the biggest enabler is a properly skilled and empowered workforce. In the digital age, new individual and collective competencies are required. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bob Newhouse, CEO and founder of Agilitiv, drew together recent research and lessons learned from emerging and established compa...
Without a clear strategy for cost control and an architecture designed with cloud services in mind, costs and operational performance can quickly get out of control. To avoid multiple architectural redesigns requires extensive thought and planning. Boundary (now part of BMC) launched a new public-facing multi-tenant high resolution monitoring service on Amazon AWS two years ago, facing challenges and learning best practices in the early days of the new service. In his session at 19th Cloud Exp...
"Venafi has a platform that allows you to manage, centralize and automate the complete life cycle of keys and certificates within the organization," explained Gina Osmond, Sr. Field Marketing Manager at Venafi, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at DevOps at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Effectively SMBs and government programs must address compounded regulatory compliance requirements. The most recent are Controlled Unclassified Information and the EU's GDPR have Board Level implications. Managing sensitive data protection will likely result in acquisition criteria, demonstration requests and new requirements. Developers, as part of the pre-planning process and the associated supply chain, could benefit from updating their code libraries and design by incorporating changes. In...
"Coalfire is a cyber-risk, security and compliance assessment and advisory services firm. We do a lot of work with the cloud service provider community," explained Ryan McGowan, Vice President, Sales (West) at Coalfire Systems, Inc., in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
CloudJumper, a Workspace as a Service (WaaS) platform innovator for agile business IT, has been recognized with the Customer Value Leadership Award for its nWorkSpace platform by Frost & Sullivan. The company was also featured in a new report(1) by the industry research firm titled, “Desktop-as-a-Service Buyer’s Guide, 2016,” which provides a comprehensive comparison of DaaS providers, including CloudJumper, Amazon, VMware, and Microsoft.
Regulatory requirements exist to promote the controlled sharing of information, while protecting the privacy and/or security of the information. Regulations for each type of information have their own set of rules, policies, and guidelines. Cloud Service Providers (CSP) are faced with increasing demand for services at decreasing prices. Demonstrating and maintaining compliance with regulations is a nontrivial task and doing so against numerous sets of regulatory requirements can be daunting task...
Fact: storage performance problems have only gotten more complicated, as applications not only have become largely virtualized, but also have moved to cloud-based infrastructures. Storage performance in virtualized environments isn’t just about IOPS anymore. Instead, you need to guarantee performance for individual VMs, helping applications maintain performance as the number of VMs continues to go up in real time. In his session at Cloud Expo, Dhiraj Sehgal, Product and Marketing at Tintri, sha...
Businesses and business units of all sizes can benefit from cloud computing, but many don't want the cost, performance and security concerns of public cloud nor the complexity of building their own private clouds. Today, some cloud vendors are using artificial intelligence (AI) to simplify cloud deployment and management. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Ajay Gulati, Co-founder and CEO of ZeroStack, will discuss how AI can simplify cloud operations. He will cover the following topics: why clou...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes how...
WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web communications world. The 6th WebRTC Summit continues our tradition of delivering the latest and greatest presentations within the world of WebRTC. Topics include voice calling, video chat, P2P file sharing, and use cases that have already leveraged the power and convenience of WebRTC.
Let’s face it, embracing new storage technologies, capabilities and upgrading to new hardware often adds complexity and increases costs. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Seth Oxenhorn, Vice President of Business Development & Alliances at FalconStor, discussed how a truly heterogeneous software-defined storage approach can add value to legacy platforms and heterogeneous environments. The result reduces complexity, significantly lowers cost, and provides IT organizations with improved efficienc...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their backend AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT - especially in the connected home and office. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Kocher, founder and managing director of Grey Heron, explained how Amazon is extending its reach to become a major force in IoT by building on its dominant cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strat...
Internet-of-Things discussions can end up either going down the consumer gadget rabbit hole or focused on the sort of data logging that industrial manufacturers have been doing forever. However, in fact, companies today are already using IoT data both to optimize their operational technology and to improve the experience of customer interactions in novel ways. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Gordon Haff, Red Hat Technology Evangelist, will share examples from a wide range of industries – includin...
"We build IoT infrastructure products - when you have to integrate different devices, different systems and cloud you have to build an application to do that but we eliminate the need to build an application. Our products can integrate any device, any system, any cloud regardless of protocol," explained Peter Jung, Chief Product Officer at Pulzze Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.