|By Gary Kaiser||
|July 14, 2014 08:45 AM EDT||
In Part IV, we wrapped up our discussions on bandwidth, congestion and packet loss. In Part V, we examine the four types of processing delays visible on the network, using the request/reply paradigm we outlined in Part I.
Server Processing (Between Flows)
From the network's perspective, we allocate the time period between the end of a request flow and the beginning of the corresponding reply flow to server processing. Generally speaking, the server doesn't begin processing a request until it has received the entire flow, i.e., the last packet in the request message; similarly, the server doesn't begin sending the reply until it has finished processing the request. We sometimes refer to these delays between flows as "pure" processing delays, distinct from another type of intra-flow processing delay we call starved for data and discuss later. Server processing delays occur as a result of a request message, and therefore always occur within a thread.
Transaction Trace Illustrations
These "pure" server processing delays are generally relatively simple to detect, to understand, and to prove. Transaction Trace's Node Processing table lists all of the observed processing delays for an operation in tabular format; by splitting this table with the Bounce Diagram and highlighting a row of interest, the Bounce Diagram will display the last packet of the request flow and the first packet of the corresponding reply flow, effectively diagramming the measurement.
Use the Node Processing Table split with the Bounce Diagram to illustrate node processing delay
You may also use the Thread Analysis split with the Bounce Diagram; this will provide a view of the request and reply packet flows as well as the processing measurement.
Split the Thread View with the Bounce Diagram to illustrate the request flow, node processing and reply flow
Starved for Data (Sending Node, Within a Flow)
Sometimes, the network interface will be able to transmit data at a rate faster than the sending application can deliver to the TCP socket. For example, a busy ftp server may momentarily interrupt sending a large file because of a disk, memory or CPU bottleneck. We refer to these pauses that occur in the middle of a flow as "starved for data" conditions; there is nothing on the network (no TCP flow control constraint) preventing the request or reply flow from continuing, so the cause must be internal to the sending node. Starved for data bottlenecks occur within a flow (instead of between flows), and are related to the sending node - either the client or server.
Transaction Trace Illustration
These cases can be more difficult to visualize. Since the condition is generally not too common, it is often best to rule out other performance bottlenecks first, before checking for data starvation. When it does occur, the condition has the effect of extending the duration of a request or reply flow, and starved for data delays are included in Transaction Trace's Node Sending measurements. Sort the rate column of the Node Sending Table and split the window with the Bounce Diagram; the Bounce Diagram will illustrate the packets associated with a sending measurement. For those sending measurements where you suspect a starved for data condition, look for idle periods of time where the sending node's flow has been interrupted. Importantly, a starved for data delay will terminate with the transmission of a data packet that resumes the sender's flow, not a TCP ACK from the receiver that might suggest a TCP or application window constraint.
The Node Sending table is split with the Bounce Diagram to help illustrate Starved for Data conditions; note the pause in transmission that resumes independent of any TCP ACK.
Client Processing (Between Flows)
From the network's perspective, we allocate the time period between the end of a reply flow and the beginning of the next request flow to client processing. Generally speaking, the client cannot begin processing a reply until it has received the entire reply flow, i.e., the last packet of the reply message; similarly, the client doesn't begin sending the next (new) request until it has completed processing the reply. (This correlation generally applies to request/reply flows on the same TCP connection.)
Transaction Trace Illustrations
Similar to server processing delays, client delays are relatively simple to understand. In most cases, client delays occur between threads; in other words, after one thread has completed but before the next thread begins. For tasks with thread-level decodes, Transaction Trace's Thread Analysis Gantt chart view can illustrate these delays well.
Gaps between threads are associated with client processing delays
Discounting Client Processing
Note that we assume strict adherence to the definition of "operation" here; click to screen update. If the trace has captured multiple steps - say the user navigates through a series of operations - then the user "think time" between steps will appear as client processing delay, with corresponding gaps between threads. You may still use these multi-step tasks for analysis, remembering to discount client processing delays. Alternatively, you can save each step as a separate task by selecting a sequence of threads from the Thread table.
For more network strategies, click here for the full article.
Entuity®, a provider of enterprise-class network management solutions, today announced that it solidifies its position as a market leader through global enterprise customer acquisitions and a refined channel strategy. In 2014, Entuity increased new license revenues in EMEA by over 75 percent, and LATAM by over 125 percent as customers embraced Entuity for its highly automated solution and unified architecture. Entuity’s refined channel strategy focuses on even deeper strategic alignment with ke...
Feb. 1, 2015 05:00 PM EST Reads: 856
The 3rd International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that its Call for Papers is now open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
Feb. 1, 2015 04:15 PM EST Reads: 3,291
We are all here because we are sold on the transformative promise of The Cloud. But what good is all of this ephemeral, on-demand infrastructure if your usage doesn't actually improve the agility and speed of your business? How must Operations adapt in order to avoid stifling your Cloud initiative? In his session at DevOps Summit, Damon Edwards, co-founder and managing partner of the DTO Solutions, will highlight the successful organizational, process, and tooling patterns of high-performing c...
Feb. 1, 2015 04:15 PM EST Reads: 3,065
Technology is enabling a new approach to collecting and using data. This approach, commonly referred to as the "Internet of Things" (IoT), enables businesses to use real-time data from all sorts of things including machines, devices and sensors to make better decisions, improve customer service, and lower the risk in the creation of new revenue opportunities. In his General Session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Dave Wagstaff, Vice President and Chief Architect at BSQUARE Corporation, discuss the ...
Feb. 1, 2015 03:45 PM EST Reads: 3,198
“We help people build clusters, in the classical sense of the cluster. We help people put a full stack on top of every single one of those machines. We do the full bare metal install," explained Greg Bruno, Vice President of Engineering and co-founder of StackIQ, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 15th Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Feb. 1, 2015 02:45 PM EST Reads: 2,650
At 15th Cloud Expo, Shrikant Pattathil, Executive Vice President at Harbinger Systems, demos a video delivery platform that helps you do interactive videos. He discusses how Harbinger is accomplishing it in the cloud world, the problems they faced and the choices they made to get around these problems.
Feb. 1, 2015 02:45 PM EST Reads: 1,781
"People are a lot more knowledgeable about APIs now. There are two types of people who work with APIs - IT people who want to use APIs for something internal and the product managers who want to do something outside APIs for people to connect to them," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Feb. 1, 2015 02:30 PM EST Reads: 2,807
CloudBees, Inc., has announced a $23.5 million financing round, led by longtime CloudBees investor Lightspeed Venture Partners. Existing investors Matrix Partners, Verizon Ventures and Blue Cloud Ventures also participated in the round. The latest funding announcement follows earlier rounds of $4 million, $10.5 million and $10.8 million, bringing the total investment in CloudBees to just under $50 million since the company’s inception in 2010. Previous venture investment rounds were led by Ma...
Feb. 1, 2015 02:00 PM EST Reads: 1,086
In this Women in Technology Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo, moderated by Anne Plese, Senior Consultant, Cloud Product Marketing at Verizon Enterprise, Esmeralda Swartz, CMO at MetraTech; Evelyn de Souza, Data Privacy and Compliance Strategy Leader at Cisco Systems; Seema Jethani, Director of Product Management at Basho Technologies; Victoria Livschitz, CEO of Qubell Inc.; Anne Hungate, Senior Director of Software Quality at DIRECTV, discussed what path they took to find their spot within the tec...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:45 PM EST Reads: 2,487
The cloud is becoming the de-facto way for enterprises to leverage common infrastructure while innovating and one of the biggest obstacles facing public cloud computing is security. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Jeff Aliber, a global marketing executive at Verizon, discussed how the best place for web security is in the cloud. Benefits include: Functions as the first layer of defense Easy operation –CNAME change Implement an integrated solution Best architecture for addressing network-l...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:30 PM EST Reads: 2,388
DevOps Summit 2015 New York, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that it is now accepting Keynote Proposals. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long development cycles that produce software that is obsolete...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:15 PM EST Reads: 2,807
The Industrial Internet revolution is now underway, enabled by connected machines and billions of devices that communicate and collaborate. The massive amounts of Big Data requiring real-time analysis is flooding legacy IT systems and giving way to cloud environments that can handle the unpredictable workloads. Yet many barriers remain until we can fully realize the opportunities and benefits from the convergence of machines and devices with Big Data and the cloud, including interoperability, ...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 3,050
IBM has announced a new strategic technology services agreement with Anthem, Inc., a health benefits company in the U.S. IBM has been selected to provide operational services for Anthem's mainframe and data center server and storage infrastructure for the next five years. Among the benefits of the relationship, Anthem has the ability to leverage IBM Cloud solutions that will help increase the ease, availability and speed of adding infrastructure to support new business requirements.
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 1,623
“DevOps is really about the business. The business is under pressure today, competitively in the marketplace to respond to the expectations of the customer. The business is driving IT and the problem is that IT isn't responding fast enough," explained Mark Levy, Senior Product Marketing Manager at Serena Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at DevOps Summit, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 2,733
Today, IT is not just a cost center. IT is an enabler and driver of business. With the emergence of the hybrid cloud paradigm, IT now has increasingly more capabilities to create new strategic opportunities for a business. Hybrid cloud allows an organization to utilize multi-tenant public clouds, dedicated private clouds, bare metal hosting, and the associated support and services for the right use cases through an on-demand, XaaS model. This model of IT creates tremendous opportunities for busi...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 1,716
Cloud computing started a technology revolution; now DevOps is driving that revolution forward. By enabling new approaches to service delivery, cloud and DevOps together are delivering even greater speed, agility, and efficiency. No wonder leading innovators are adopting DevOps and cloud together! In his session at DevOps Summit, Andi Mann, Vice President of Strategic Solutions at CA Technologies, explored the synergies in these two approaches, with practical tips, techniques, research data, wa...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 3,317
Software AG and Wipro Ltd. have announced a joint solution platform for streaming analytics that provides real-time actionable intelligence for the Internet of Things (IoT) market. “The key to successfully addressing the IoT market is the ability to rapidly build and evolve apps that tap into, analyze and make smart decisions on fast, big data”, said John Bates, Global Head of Industry Solutions and CMO, Software AG. To address the huge market potential created by streaming analytics in conj...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 1,226
Appcore deploys cloud for service providers based on the Apache Cloud set. In this demo at 15th Cloud Expo, Nate Gordon, Director of Technology at Appcore, shows their new product that's coming out in January - Appcore Atlas, which is focused on deploying private clouds based on CloudStack in 15 minutes or less. Our upcoming June 9-11, 2015, event in New York City will present a total of 10 simultaneous tracks (the largest conference content in the world) by an all-star faculty, over three days...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 1,647
Amazon, Google and Facebook are household names in part because of their mastery of Big Data. But what about organizations without billions of dollars to spend on Big Data tools - how can they extract value from their data? In his session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Ali Ghodsi, Co-Founder and Head of Engineering at Databricks, discussed how the zero management cost and scalability of the cloud is addressing the challenges and pain points that data engineers face when working with Big Data. He also s...
Feb. 1, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 2,587
The term culture has had a polarizing effect among DevOps supporters. Some propose that culture change is critical for success with DevOps, but are remiss to define culture. Some talk about a DevOps culture but then reference activities that could lead to culture change and there are those that talk about culture change as a set of behaviors that need to be adopted by those in IT. There is no question that businesses successful in adopting a DevOps mindset have seen departmental culture change, ...
Feb. 1, 2015 12:45 PM EST Reads: 2,703