Welcome!

Machine Learning Authors: Ed Featherston, Corey Roth, Peter Silva, Yeshim Deniz, Automic Blog

Blog Feed Post

What are you waiting for?

The future of HTTP is here, or almost here.   It has been 5 years since SPDY was first introduced as a better way to deliver web sites.  A lot has happened since then. 

  • Chrome, Firefox, Opera and some IE installations support SPDY.
  • SPDY evolved from v2 to v3 to v3.1.
  • Sites like Google, Facebook, Twitter, and Wordpress to name just a few are available via SPDY.
  • F5 announced availability of a SPDY Gateway.
  • The IETF HTTP working group announced SPDY is the starting point for HTTP/2.
  • And most recently - Apple has announced that Safari 8, due out this fall,  will support SPDY!  This means that all major browsers will support SPDY by the end of the year.  

By the end of the year all major browsers will support SPDY, and the IETF is scheduled to have the HTTP/2 draft finalized.  This week the IETF working group published the latest draft of the HTTP/2 spec.  The hope is that this will be the version that becomes the proposed RFC.  

The Internet Explorer team  posted a blog at the end of May indicating that they have HTTP/2 in development for a future version of IE, there is no commitment whether this will be in IE 12 or another version but they are preparing for the shift.  We at F5, have been following the evolution of the spec and developing prototypes based on the various interoperability drafts to make sure we are ready as soon as possible to implement an HTTP/2 gateway.   So what are you waiting for, why are you not using SPDY on your site?

Using SPDY today allows you to see how HTTP/2 may potentially impact your applications and infrastructure.   HTTP/2 is not a new protocol, there are no changes to the HTTP semantics and it does not obsolete the existing HTTP/1.1 message syntax.   If it’s not a new protocol and it doesn’t obsolete HTTP/1.1 what is HTTP/2 exactly?  Per the draft’s abstract:

This specification describes an optimized expression of the syntax of
   the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).  HTTP/2 enables a more
   efficient use of network resources and a reduced perception of
   latency by introducing header field compression and allowing multiple
   concurrent messages on the same connection.  It also introduces
   unsolicited push of representations from servers to clients.

   This specification is an alternative to, but does not obsolete, the
   HTTP/1.1 message syntax.  HTTP's existing semantics remain unchanged.

HTTP/2 allows communication to occur with less data transmitted over the network and with the ability to send multiple requests and responses across a single connection, out of order and interleaved – oh yeah and all over SSL.  

Let’s look at these in a little more detail.  Sending less data has always been a good thing but just how much improvement can be achieved by compressing headers.     It turns out quite a bit.    Headers have a lot of repetitive information in them: the cookies, encoding types, cache settings to name just a few.  With all this repetitive information compression can really help.    Looking at the amount of downloaded data for a web page delivered over HTTP and over SPDY we can see just how much savings can be achieved.   Below is a sample of 10 objects delivered over HTTP and SPDY, the byte savings result in a total savings of 1762 bytes.   That doesn’t sound like much but we’re only talking about 10 objects.  The average home page now has close to 100 objects on it, and I’m sure the total number of hits to your website is well over that number.   If your website gets 1 million hits a day then extrapolating this out the savings become 168 MB, if the hits are closer to 10 million the savings nears 1.7 GB.   Over the course of a month or a year these savings will start to add up.  

  HTTP SPDY Byte Savings
https://.../SitePages/Home.aspx 29179 29149 30
https://.../_layouts/1033/core.js 84457 84411 46
https://.../_layouts/sp.js 71834 71751 83
https://.../_layouts/sp.ribbon.js 57999 57827 172
https://.../_layouts/1033/init.js 42055 41864 191
https://.../_layouts/images/fgimg.png 20478 20250 228
https://.../_layouts/images/homepageSamplePhoto.jpg 16935 16704 231
https://.../ScriptResource.axd 27854 27617 237
https://.../_layouts/images/favicon.ico 5794 5525 269
https://.../_layouts/blank.js 496 221 275

SPDY performed header compression via deflate, this was discovered to be vulnerable to CRIME attacks, as a result HTTP/2 uses HPACK header compression, an HTTP header specific compression scheme which is not vulnerable to CRIME.  

The next element to examine is the ability to send multiple requests and response across a single connection, out of order and interleaved.  We all know that latency can have a big impact on page load times and the end user experience.  This is why HTTP 1.1 allowed for keep-alives, eliminating the need to perform a three way handshake for each and every request.   After keep alives came, domain sharding  and browsers eventually changed the default behavior to allow more than 2 concurrent TCP connections.  The downside of multiple TCP connections is having to conduct the three way handshake multiple times, wouldn’t things be easier if all requests could just be sent over a single TCP connection.  This is what HTTP/2 provides, and not only that the responses can be returned in a different order in which they were reqeusted. 

 

HTTP2

Now onto the SSL component.  HTTP/2 requires strong crypto –128 bit EC or 2048 bit RSA.  This requirement will be enforced by browsers and cannot be disabled.   With the ever growing number of attacks having SSL everywhere is a good thing but there are performance and reporting ramifications to encrypting all data.  Organizations that deploy solutions to monitor, classify and analyze Internet traffic may no longer be able to do so.  

All the changes coming in HTTP/2 have the potential to impact how an application is rendered and how infrastructure components will react.   What are the consequences of having all requests and responses transmitted over SSL, can the network support 50 concurrent requests for objects, does the page render properly for the end user if objects are received out of order?  On the positive you could end up with improved page load times and a reduction in the amount of data transferred, stop waiting and start enabling the future of the web today.  

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Dawn Parzych

Dawn Parzych is a Technical Product Marketing Manager at Instart Logic. Dawn has had a passion for web performance for over 15 years with a focus on how to make the web faster. As a technical product marketing manager at Instart Logic, she researches and writes about trends in the web performance space and how they impact the user experience. Prior to joining Instart Logic, Dawn worked at F5 Networks, Gomez & Empirix.

@CloudExpo Stories
DX World EXPO, LLC, a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
"Space Monkey by Vivent Smart Home is a product that is a distributed cloud-based edge storage network. Vivent Smart Home, our parent company, is a smart home provider that places a lot of hard drives across homes in North America," explained JT Olds, Director of Engineering, and Brandon Crowfeather, Product Manager, at Vivint Smart Home, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Conference Guru has been named “Media Sponsor” of the 22nd International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. A valuable conference experience generates new contacts, sales leads, potential strategic partners and potential investors; helps gather competitive intelligence and even provides inspiration for new products and services. Conference Guru works with conference organizers to pass great deals to gre...
DevOps is under attack because developers don’t want to mess with infrastructure. They will happily own their code into production, but want to use platforms instead of raw automation. That’s changing the landscape that we understand as DevOps with both architecture concepts (CloudNative) and process redefinition (SRE). Rob Hirschfeld’s recent work in Kubernetes operations has led to the conclusion that containers and related platforms have changed the way we should be thinking about DevOps and...
In his Opening Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, John Considine, General Manager of IBM Cloud Infrastructure, led attendees through the exciting evolution of the cloud. He looked at this major disruption from the perspective of technology, business models, and what this means for enterprises of all sizes. John Considine is General Manager of Cloud Infrastructure Services at IBM. In that role he is responsible for leading IBM’s public cloud infrastructure including strategy, development, and offering m...
The next XaaS is CICDaaS. Why? Because CICD saves developers a huge amount of time. CD is an especially great option for projects that require multiple and frequent contributions to be integrated. But… securing CICD best practices is an emerging, essential, yet little understood practice for DevOps teams and their Cloud Service Providers. The only way to get CICD to work in a highly secure environment takes collaboration, patience and persistence. Building CICD in the cloud requires rigorous ar...
Companies are harnessing data in ways we once associated with science fiction. Analysts have access to a plethora of visualization and reporting tools, but considering the vast amount of data businesses collect and limitations of CPUs, end users are forced to design their structures and systems with limitations. Until now. As the cloud toolkit to analyze data has evolved, GPUs have stepped in to massively parallel SQL, visualization and machine learning.
"Evatronix provides design services to companies that need to integrate the IoT technology in their products but they don't necessarily have the expertise, knowledge and design team to do so," explained Adam Morawiec, VP of Business Development at Evatronix, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
To get the most out of their data, successful companies are not focusing on queries and data lakes, they are actively integrating analytics into their operations with a data-first application development approach. Real-time adjustments to improve revenues, reduce costs, or mitigate risk rely on applications that minimize latency on a variety of data sources. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Jack Norris, Senior Vice President, Data and Applications at MapR Technologies, reviewed best practices to ...
"ZeroStack is a startup in Silicon Valley. We're solving a very interesting problem around bringing public cloud convenience with private cloud control for enterprises and mid-size companies," explained Kamesh Pemmaraju, VP of Product Management at ZeroStack, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Large industrial manufacturing organizations are adopting the agile principles of cloud software companies. The industrial manufacturing development process has not scaled over time. Now that design CAD teams are geographically distributed, centralizing their work is key. With large multi-gigabyte projects, outdated tools have stifled industrial team agility, time-to-market milestones, and impacted P&L stakeholders.
Enterprises are adopting Kubernetes to accelerate the development and the delivery of cloud-native applications. However, sharing a Kubernetes cluster between members of the same team can be challenging. And, sharing clusters across multiple teams is even harder. Kubernetes offers several constructs to help implement segmentation and isolation. However, these primitives can be complex to understand and apply. As a result, it’s becoming common for enterprises to end up with several clusters. Thi...
"Infoblox does DNS, DHCP and IP address management for not only enterprise networks but cloud networks as well. Customers are looking for a single platform that can extend not only in their private enterprise environment but private cloud, public cloud, tracking all the IP space and everything that is going on in that environment," explained Steve Salo, Principal Systems Engineer at Infoblox, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventio...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, James Henry, Co-CEO/CTO of Calgary Scientific Inc., introduced you to the challenges, solutions and benefits of training AI systems to solve visual problems with an emphasis on improving AIs with continuous training in the field. He explored applications in several industries and discussed technologies that allow the deployment of advanced visualization solutions to the cloud.
The question before companies today is not whether to become intelligent, it’s a question of how and how fast. The key is to adopt and deploy an intelligent application strategy while simultaneously preparing to scale that intelligence. In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, Sangeeta Chakraborty, Chief Customer Officer at Ayasdi, provided a tactical framework to become a truly intelligent enterprise, including how to identify the right applications for AI, how to build a Center of Excellence to oper...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventi...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Carl J. Levine, Senior Technical Evangelist for NS1, will objectively discuss how DNS is used to solve Digital Transformation challenges in large SaaS applications, CDNs, AdTech platforms, and other demanding use cases. Carl J. Levine is the Senior Technical Evangelist for NS1. A veteran of the Internet Infrastructure space, he has over a decade of experience with startups, networking protocols and Internet infrastructure, combined with the unique ability to it...
22nd International Cloud Expo, taking place June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and co-located with the 1st DXWorld Expo will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud ...
"Cloud Academy is an enterprise training platform for the cloud, specifically public clouds. We offer guided learning experiences on AWS, Azure, Google Cloud and all the surrounding methodologies and technologies that you need to know and your teams need to know in order to leverage the full benefits of the cloud," explained Alex Brower, VP of Marketing at Cloud Academy, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clar...
Gemini is Yahoo’s native and search advertising platform. To ensure the quality of a complex distributed system that spans multiple products and components and across various desktop websites and mobile app and web experiences – both Yahoo owned and operated and third-party syndication (supply), with complex interaction with more than a billion users and numerous advertisers globally (demand) – it becomes imperative to automate a set of end-to-end tests 24x7 to detect bugs and regression. In th...