Welcome!

Machine Learning Authors: Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, Corey Roth

Related Topics: Ruby-On-Rails, Java IoT, Industrial IoT, Microservices Expo, Open Source Cloud, Machine Learning , PHP

Ruby-On-Rails: Article

Monitoring Background Jobs in Ruby’s Resque

How to get visibility into an important component of any complex system: the messaging queue

Here at AppNeta, we get to see a lot about how people build their web applications. From simple PHP scripts to heavily service-oriented Java clouds to monolithic Django apps, everybody’s product is architected a little differently. We’re still out to trace everything, and today I want to talk how to get visibility into an important component of any complex system: the messaging queue. Specifically, let’s look at how to trace a job from Rails using Resque.

Messaging Queues
If you haven’t used a messaging queue in your app, the idea is simple. Instead of forcing all the work to happen during the request, while the user is waiting, you can delay some of the more time-consuming tasks. You can do anything in these tasks, ranging from a simple insert to kicking off a series of user analytics that touch all parts of your infrastructure. The advantage is that you can return a speedy response to the user, or, if they are actually waiting on the task results, give them a better loading interface than a white screen and browser loading bar.

A Quick Resque Tutorial
In Ruby, Resque is a task runner, which by default stores the task descriptions in Redis (though other options are available). Resque jobs are just Ruby classes, with a single mandatory method perform. Resque will call perform with the arguments given in the task description. Let’s look at a minimal task, that takes a single argument and prints it. (Useless, I know.)

LogInfo

The @queue variable defines a name that a worker can bind to, in case you want to spread different types of jobs across different machines. To create a task that this worker could run, we just call it from our request:

HoorayTrace

And that’s our job! Maybe not the most interesting job, and probably not prone to performance issues, but we don’t know that yet. So let’s measure it!

Tracing a Resque Task
Now that we’ve added this to our system, we should have monitoring around it. The easiest way to do this would be to just measure the time each task takes, and log that information:

MeasureLog

Unfortunately, the data presentation here leaves a bit to be desired, so I’m going to use TraceView to log this information instead. This also has the benefit of logging any SQL queries, cache accesses, or service calls that we might do in a more complex task, as well as reporting errors. To start a trace fresh, we can wrap this call in the start_trace block:

That’s a start! We’ve now got some visibility into our Resque jobs, and we can rest easy knowing that this is running smoothly in production.

Tracing a Resque Job (with multiple tasks!)
For cron-style jobs, the approach of tracing each task individually works fine. For reference, let’s look at the events we’re generating with that code:

Tracing Resque

Pretty straightforward. Now let’s consider a more complicated set of tasks: a document-processing pipeline. That code might look like this:

ProcessPipeline

In this case, our first task takes a document, and the second one archives it. If we have multiple tasks, each one gets logged separately, and we can figure out same statistics for each — average, std. dev., percentiles, and the like. But what if you have a job that spans multiple tasks? We can further aggregate the stats, but we might be starting to miss things, like large inputs that cause the entire pipeline to slow down.

What we’d really like is to correlate the related tasks, so instead of timing the each task, we’re timing the entire job. Under the hood, TraceView generates a token for each request. If we pass this ID (generally stored in xtrace, after the X-Trace header it’s passed around in) to each task, we can correlate those timings before storing them, and retrieve them all together. To do this, we can modify each task to take this token, and trace using that ID. ProcessDoc then becomes:

ProcessDoc

Now we need to start the trace somewhere, but we’re not doing it in the job. We could start it in the first task, or we could link this one step further up the chain and tie it back to the web request that started it in the first place. In a default rails stack, that request generates the following events:

Tracing Resque

To add in the task queue call to the logged request, we can call the following function:

TaskQueue-LoggedRequest

We have to force a fork in the execution path to indicate that we’re running an asynchronous task, possibly in parallel, with the rest of the web request, which is done with the call to fromString. Aside from that, this is the same underlying call as is done by start_trace above — log that we’re entering a named block of code, and start timing it.

When we put it all together, we get a secondary execution path attached to the web request, and the logged events look like this:

Tracing Resque

Now we’ve got everything: the original request, all tasks, individual timing information, and a global view of how the process performed. Not that we now have an additional timing measurement here: the delay before starting the task at all. In this case, we waited a full 500ms between queuing the job actually executing it! Once we were in the pipeline, the tasks happened much faster (only 25ms between processing and archiving).

Caveats
Lest you think that everything was easy, there’s a couple things to keep in mind when you use this in your own application.

  • Because we’re starting the timing in the web request and ending it in a task queue, we’re relying on those two processes to have an identical clock. If they’re on the same machine, it won’t be a problem, but on different machines, any clock skew will effect the timing.
  • I’ve quietly assumed everything in this system is reliable, which is almost certainly wrong. Whatever your error handling is, make sure you always log the exit event for ‘job’, or you may never know that you have errors!

As long as I haven’t totally dissuaded you from trying this out, all the code is available in one place in this gist, and you can try in out in your application today with our free version of TraceView!

Related Articles

Ruby 2.0 Released: Let The Tracing Begin!

AppNeta Rubygems Verified

Relieve Event Binding Aches in Backbone.js

More Stories By TR Jordan

A veteran of MIT’s Lincoln Labs, TR is a reformed physicist and full-stack hacker – for some limited definition of full stack. After a few years as Software Development Lead with Thermopylae Science and Techology, he left to join Tracelytics as its first engineer. Following Tracelytics merger with AppNeta, TR was tapped to run all of its developer and market evangelism efforts. TR still harbors a not-so-secret love for Matlab-esque graphs and half-baked statistics, as well as elegant and highly-performant code. Read more of his articles at www.appneta.com/blog or visit www.appneta.com.

@CloudExpo Stories
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that the upcoming DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO New York event will feature 10 companies from Poland to participate at the "Poland Digital Transformation Pavilion" on November 12-13, 2018.
Without a clear strategy for cost control and an architecture designed with cloud services in mind, costs and operational performance can quickly get out of control. To avoid multiple architectural redesigns requires extensive thought and planning. Boundary (now part of BMC) launched a new public-facing multi-tenant high resolution monitoring service on Amazon AWS two years ago, facing challenges and learning best practices in the early days of the new service.
Digital Transformation is much more than a buzzword. The radical shift to digital mechanisms for almost every process is evident across all industries and verticals. This is often especially true in financial services, where the legacy environment is many times unable to keep up with the rapidly shifting demands of the consumer. The constant pressure to provide complete, omnichannel delivery of customer-facing solutions to meet both regulatory and customer demands is putting enormous pressure on...
The best way to leverage your CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at CloudEXPO. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audienc...
With 10 simultaneous tracks, keynotes, general sessions and targeted breakout classes, @CloudEXPO and DXWorldEXPO are two of the most important technology events of the year. Since its launch over eight years ago, @CloudEXPO and DXWorldEXPO have presented a rock star faculty as well as showcased hundreds of sponsors and exhibitors!
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smart...
In his Opening Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, John Considine, General Manager of IBM Cloud Infrastructure, led attendees through the exciting evolution of the cloud. He looked at this major disruption from the perspective of technology, business models, and what this means for enterprises of all sizes. John Considine is General Manager of Cloud Infrastructure Services at IBM. In that role he is responsible for leading IBM’s public cloud infrastructure including strategy, development, and offering m...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that All in Mobile, a mobile app development company from Poland, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. All In Mobile is a mobile app development company from Poland. Since 2014, they maintain passion for developing mobile applications for enterprises and startups worldwide.
@DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, taking place November 12-13 in New York City, NY, is co-located with 22nd international CloudEXPO | first international DXWorldEXPO and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
In his keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs, discussed the technological advances and new business opportunities created by the rapid adoption of containers. With the success of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and various open source technologies used to build private clouds, cloud computing has become an essential component of IT strategy. However, users continue to face challenges in implementing clouds, as older technologies evolve and newer ones like Docker c...
We all know that end users experience the internet primarily with mobile devices. From an app development perspective, we know that successfully responding to the needs of mobile customers depends on rapid DevOps – failing fast, in short, until the right solution evolves in your customers' relationship to your business. Whether you’re decomposing an SOA monolith, or developing a new application cloud natively, it’s not a question of using microservices - not doing so will be a path to eventual ...
The next XaaS is CICDaaS. Why? Because CICD saves developers a huge amount of time. CD is an especially great option for projects that require multiple and frequent contributions to be integrated. But… securing CICD best practices is an emerging, essential, yet little understood practice for DevOps teams and their Cloud Service Providers. The only way to get CICD to work in a highly secure environment takes collaboration, patience and persistence. Building CICD in the cloud requires rigorous ar...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that ICC-USA, a computer systems integrator and server manufacturing company focused on developing products and product appliances, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. DXWordEXPO New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City. ICC is a computer systems integrator and server manufacturing company focused on developing products and product appliances to meet a wide range of ...
Sanjeev Sharma Joins November 11-13, 2018 @DevOpsSummit at @CloudEXPO New York Faculty. Sanjeev Sharma is an internationally known DevOps and Cloud Transformation thought leader, technology executive, and author. Sanjeev's industry experience includes tenures as CTO, Technical Sales leader, and Cloud Architect leader. As an IBM Distinguished Engineer, Sanjeev is recognized at the highest levels of IBM's core of technical leaders.
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and ...
We are seeing a major migration of enterprises applications to the cloud. As cloud and business use of real time applications accelerate, legacy networks are no longer able to architecturally support cloud adoption and deliver the performance and security required by highly distributed enterprises. These outdated solutions have become more costly and complicated to implement, install, manage, and maintain.SD-WAN offers unlimited capabilities for accessing the benefits of the cloud and Internet. ...
As Cybric's Chief Technology Officer, Mike D. Kail is responsible for the strategic vision and technical direction of the platform. Prior to founding Cybric, Mike was Yahoo's CIO and SVP of Infrastructure, where he led the IT and Data Center functions for the company. He has more than 24 years of IT Operations experience with a focus on highly-scalable architectures.
Headquartered in Plainsboro, NJ, Synametrics Technologies has provided IT professionals and computer systems developers since 1997. Based on the success of their initial product offerings (WinSQL and DeltaCopy), the company continues to create and hone innovative products that help its customers get more from their computer applications, databases and infrastructure. To date, over one million users around the world have chosen Synametrics solutions to help power their accelerated business or per...
Founded in 2000, Chetu Inc. is a global provider of customized software development solutions and IT staff augmentation services for software technology providers. By providing clients with unparalleled niche technology expertise and industry experience, Chetu has become the premiere long-term, back-end software development partner for start-ups, SMBs, and Fortune 500 companies. Chetu is headquartered in Plantation, Florida, with thirteen offices throughout the U.S. and abroad.
Dion Hinchcliffe is an internationally recognized digital expert, bestselling book author, frequent keynote speaker, analyst, futurist, and transformation expert based in Washington, DC. He is currently Chief Strategy Officer at the industry-leading digital strategy and online community solutions firm, 7Summits.