Welcome!

IoT User Interface Authors: Elizabeth White, Dana Gardner, Pat Romanski, JP Morgenthal, John Basso

Related Topics: Java IoT, Industrial IoT, Microservices Expo, ColdFusion, Microsoft Cloud, IoT User Interface

Java IoT: Article

Eleven Tips to Becoming a Better Performance Engineer

How to conduct performance testing

The ability to conduct effective performance testing has become a highly desired skillset within the IT industry. Unfortunately, these highly sought-after skills are consistently in short supply. "Front-end testers" can work with a tool to create a realistic load and although this is an important skillset, creating the load is just the beginning of any performance project. Understanding the load patterns and tuning the environment makes the unique talents of a "performance engineer" worth their weight in gold.

Performance engineers require skills in data analysis such as resource usage patterns, modeling, capacity planning, and tuning in order to detect, isolate, and alleviate saturation points within a deployment. Performance testing generates concurrency conditions and exposes resource competition at a server level. When the competition results in a resource (such as a thread pool) becoming over-utilized, this resource becomes a bottleneck or a saturation point. Performance engineers need to first understand the underlying architectures and develop a sense of where to look for potential scalability issues. Much of these "senses" or skills come from experience, working in many multi-tier environments and successfully tuning bottlenecks. Here are some tips to make the challenging but rewarding transition from a front-end tester to a performance engineer.

Wisdom, Determination, Patience, and Communication
Who said there isn't a whole lot of psychology in technology? ;) Whether you are determining the current capacity of a deployment or you are recreating a production problem, it's often a very complex task- so many moving parts within the infrastructure, so many numbers to analyze from so many sources, data sets of raw test results to turn into understandable formats, so many people to keep in the loop, so much technical coordination... I could go on and on. It's your professional soft skills which will keep you on the right course. It requires determination to unpeel the layers of an onion and investigate each tier of the deployment. It requires the wisdom to spot trends instead of pursuing the tangents of anomalies. It requires the dedication to keep an eye on many different metrics and isolate resource saturation. And it requires the patience to reproduce scenarios in order to make conclusions based on proof/evidence. And you need to accomplish all of this while being an excellent communicator!

Methodical Approach - The Constant
Spend your time wisely in the beginning and set up the most realistic test scenarios. Then "set" the performance scenario in stone. This means Do Not change even the most minute details in your test case: All transactions flows, all mixtures, all think times, all behaviors - no variations at this point. This is the "constant" in your experiment and it is the only way you can reproduce and compare results. Any deviation within the test case scenario will result in different throughputs which affect resource patterns. Not following this tip will surely lead you on a collision course with Analysis Paralysis!

Architectural Diagram - Identify Potential Bottlenecks by Visualization
Make sure you ask for and receive an architectural diagram of the entire deployment. Map out business transactions to resources utilized within the environment. Make sure you understand all the transaction flows, from front end load balancers down to the shared resource database. Study the deployment and hook up precise monitors, leaving no blind spots. Visualize where contentions or bottlenecks COULD occur. Each resource of the environment must be monitored for signs of saturation. In reality, it's in the identification of where to look for bottlenecks that is the more difficult task. Alleviating these bottlenecks is the easy (and most rewarding) part. But without an architectural map, your journey will easily end by the frustration of getting lost in the dark.

Tuning Hardware and Software Level Bottlenecks
"Tuning is an Art". "Tuning is a Science". Which is it? Hardware servers are restricted by the physical resources (disk io/memory, cpu). Software servers are much more configurable and this is where expertise in needed for tuning. Performance engineers must understand the workings of a "server" in thread pools, caching policies, memory allocations, connection pooling, etc. Tuning is a balancing act. It's the situation where you tune the software servers in order to take full advantage of hardware resources, without causing a flood. Simply opening up all the gates isn't going to help when the backend is saturated with requests. Tuning must be conservative, weighing all the benefits as well as the consequences.

Proof: Reproducible Results
Typically, a seasoned performance engineer will tune a layer of the environment only when the results are reproducible. Always use trends instead of points in time, mere spikes are not cause for architectural changes. As a rule of thumb, you should reproduce 3 times before you make a change. Sometimes this takes a while... So be prepared to be patient. For example, if you are emulating a production login rate of 3 users per second, but the performance deterioration doesn't occur until you have 2000 active users, it will take a while to see it. Making an unnecessary change simply muddies the waters, keep it clear and recreate those exact conditions.

Tune the First Occurring Bottleneck
Make sure you tune the layer which showed contention earliest in the performance test, not the first identified bottleneck. When monitoring a large complex system, there are many counters to keep in your sights. Don't jump the gun and tune a thread pool when you see it becomes saturated, this could actually be a symptom of the problem, not the root cause. Correlate (using graphing is easiest) the point of time of degradation of performance to the first saturation within the environment. Understandably, there is a ton of information to look at - keep it simpler by just looking at the free resources based on percentages (free threads, free cache, and free file descriptors) and this will allow you to spot a bottleneck quicker. When a free resource runs low, there's a possible bottleneck. Understand the resource utilization and free resources will allow you to understand a bottleneck before it affects the end-user response time. In other words, watch as the resource becomes utilized. When free gets low, keep it on your radar for a cause of performance degradation.

Iterative Tuning Process
Tuning is an iterative process. Know that once you have alleviated one bottleneck, you will surely encounter another one. But do not fret... All aspects of servers are limited and since nothing is infinite you will eventually reach the end. Tuning manipulates the gates, requests which don't have a resource are queued and must wait to be serviced. Tuning becomes a process you must repeat until the workload reaches target capacity with acceptable response times.

Validation
Validate, validate, validate. Just as important as recreating and tuning based upon proof is validating that the tuning change had the desired effect. Did it indeed impact scalability in a positive way? Often, performance engineers test out theories. And sometimes, the validation stage will cause a change to be reverted. It's ok that not every change will make it to production. The key is to use a very scientific approach in which you prove the result as well as the requirement.

I hope you gleaned some pearls of wisdom.

Creating the load and emulating production workload is a means to end - you obviously need to create the load before you can capacity plan or understand the scalability of the deployment. But it is the skills in performance analysis that are most valuable. The performance engineer who walks into a project, takes the lead, wastes no time in learning the environment, creates and/or executes the realistic tests, identifies current capacity, isolates and alleviates bottlenecks, documents results, mentors the juniors, and clearly and effectively communicates with everyone from developers on up to the CIO/CTO's, is truly a GOLD MINE.

Becoming a true performance engineer is no easy task, but it's well worth the effort!

More Stories By Rebecca Clinard

Rebecca Clinard is a Senior Performance Engineer at Neotys, a provider of load testing software for Web applications. Previously, she worked as a web application performance engineer for Bowstreet, Fidelity Investments, Bottomline Technologies and Timberland companies, industries spanning retail, financial services, insurance and manufacturing. Her expertise lies in creating realistic load tests and performance tuning multi-tier deployments. She has been orchestrating and conducting performance tests since 2001. Clinard graduated from University of New Hampshire with a BS and also holds a UNIX Certificate from Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

@CloudExpo Stories
"Operations is sort of the maturation of cloud utilization and the move to the cloud," explained Steve Anderson, Product Manager for BMC’s Cloud Lifecycle Management, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Enterprise networks are complex. Moreover, they were designed and deployed to meet a specific set of business requirements at a specific point in time. But, the adoption of cloud services, new business applications and intensifying security policies, among other factors, require IT organizations to continuously deploy configuration changes. Therefore, enterprises are looking for better ways to automate the management of their networks while still leveraging existing capabilities, optimizing perf...
Security, data privacy, reliability and regulatory compliance are critical factors when evaluating whether to move business applications from in-house client hosted environments to a cloud platform. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Vandana Viswanathan, Associate Director at Cognizant, In this session, will provide an orientation to the five stages required to implement a cloud hosted solution validation strategy.
The cloud competition for database hosts is fierce. How do you evaluate a cloud provider for your database platform? In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Chris Presley, a Solutions Architect at Pythian, gave users a checklist of considerations when choosing a provider. Chris Presley is a Solutions Architect at Pythian. He loves order – making him a premier Microsoft SQL Server expert. Not only has he programmed and administered SQL Server, but he has also shared his expertise and passion with b...
We're entering the post-smartphone era, where wearable gadgets from watches and fitness bands to glasses and health aids will power the next technological revolution. With mass adoption of wearable devices comes a new data ecosystem that must be protected. Wearables open new pathways that facilitate the tracking, sharing and storing of consumers’ personal health, location and daily activity data. Consumers have some idea of the data these devices capture, but most don’t realize how revealing and...
Unless your company can spend a lot of money on new technology, re-engineering your environment and hiring a comprehensive cybersecurity team, you will most likely move to the cloud or seek external service partnerships. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Darren Guccione, CEO of Keeper Security, revealed what you need to know when it comes to encryption in the cloud.
What are the successful IoT innovations from emerging markets? What are the unique challenges and opportunities from these markets? How did the constraints in connectivity among others lead to groundbreaking insights? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Carmen Feliciano, a Principal at AMDG, will answer all these questions and share how you can apply IoT best practices and frameworks from the emerging markets to your own business.
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Many private cloud projects were built to deliver self-service access to development and test resources. While those clouds delivered faster access to resources, they lacked visibility, control and security needed for production deployments. In their session at 18th Cloud Expo, Steve Anderson, Product Manager at BMC Software, and Rick Lefort, Principal Technical Marketing Consultant at BMC Software, discussed how a cloud designed for production operations not only helps accelerate developer in...
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Ask someone to architect an Internet of Things (IoT) solution and you are guaranteed to see a reference to the cloud. This would lead you to believe that IoT requires the cloud to exist. However, there are many IoT use cases where the cloud is not feasible or desirable. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, will discuss the strategies that exist to extend intelligence directly to IoT devices and sensors, freeing them from the constraints of ...
Aspose.Total for .NET is the most complete package of all file format APIs for .NET as offered by Aspose. It empowers developers to create, edit, render, print and convert between a wide range of popular document formats within any .NET, C#, ASP.NET and VB.NET applications. Aspose compiles all .NET APIs on a daily basis to ensure that it contains the most up to date versions of each of Aspose .NET APIs. If a new .NET API or a new version of existing APIs is released during the subscription peri...
The competitive landscape of the global cloud computing market in the healthcare industry is crowded due to the presence of a large number of players. The large number of participants has led to the fragmented nature of the market. Some of the major players operating in the global cloud computing market in the healthcare industry are Cisco Systems Inc., Carestream Health Inc., Carecloud Corp., AGFA Healthcare, IBM Corp., Cleardata Networks, Merge Healthcare Inc., Microsoft Corp., Intel Corp., an...
The best-practices for building IoT applications with Go Code that attendees can use to build their own IoT applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Indraneel Mitra, Senior Solutions Architect & Technology Evangelist at Cognizant, provided valuable information and resources for both novice and experienced developers on how to get started with IoT and Golang in a day. He also provided information on how to use Intel Arduino Kit, Go Robotics API and AWS IoT stack to build an application tha...
Is your aging software platform suffering from technical debt while the market changes and demands new solutions at a faster clip? It’s a bold move, but you might consider walking away from your core platform and starting fresh. ReadyTalk did exactly that. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, will discuss why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and over a decade of audio conferencing product development to start an innovati...
With an estimated 50 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2020, several industries will begin to expand their capabilities for retaining end point data at the edge to better utilize the range of data types and sheer volume of M2M data generated by the Internet of Things. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and President of Infobright, discussed the infrastructures businesses will need to implement to handle this explosion of data by providing specific use cases for filterin...
SYS-CON Events announced today the Kubernetes and Google Container Engine Workshop, being held November 3, 2016, in conjunction with @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. This workshop led by Sebastian Scheele introduces participants to Kubernetes and Google Container Engine (GKE). Through a combination of instructor-led presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on labs, students learn the key concepts and practices for deploying and maintainin...
Cloud analytics is dramatically altering business intelligence. Some businesses will capitalize on these promising new technologies and gain key insights that’ll help them gain competitive advantage. And others won’t. Whether you’re a business leader, an IT manager, or an analyst, we want to help you and the people you need to influence with a free copy of “Cloud Analytics for Dummies,” the essential guide to this explosive new space for business intelligence.
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, provided tips on how to be successful in large scale machine learning...