|By Alois Reitbauer||
|March 10, 2011 10:45 AM EST||
When building distributed applications one of the central performance-critical components is serialization. Most modern frameworks make it very easy to send data over the wire. In many cases you don’t see at all what is going on behind the scenes. Choosing the right serialization strategy however is central for achieving good performance and scalability. Serialization problems affect CPU, memory, network load and response times.
Java provides us with a large variety of serialization technologies. The actual amount of data which is sent over the wire can vary substantially. We will use a very simple sample where we send the firstname, lastname and birthdate over the wire. Then we’ll see how big the actual payload gets.
As a reference we start by sending only the payload. This is the most efficient way of sending data, as there is no overhead involved. The downside is that due to the missing metadata the message can only be de-serialized if we know the exact serialization method. This approach also has a very high testing and maintenance effort and we have to handle all implementation complexity ourselves. The figure below shows what our payload looks like in binary format.
Now we switch to standard serialization in Java. As you can see in below we are now transferring much more metadata. This data is required by the Java Runtime to rebuild the transferred object at the receiver side. Besides structural information the metadata also contains versioning information which allows communication across different versions of the same object. In reality, this feature often turns out to be harder than it initially looks. The metadata overhead in our example is rather high. This is caused by large amount of data in the GregorianCalendar Object we are using. The conclusion that Java Serialization comes with a very high overhead per se, however is not valid. Most of this metadata will be cached for subsequent invocations.
Java Serialization is by default used in RMI communication when not using IIOP as a protocol. Application server providers also offer their own serialization stacks which are more efficient than default serialization. If interoperability is not important, provider-specific implementations are the better choice.
The Java ecosystem also provides interesting alternatives to Java Serialization. A widely known one is Hessian which can be easily used with Spring. Hessian allows an easy straightforward implementation of services. Underneath it uses a binary protocol. The figure below shows our data serialized with Hessian. As you can see the transferred data is very slim. Hessian therefore provides an interesting alternative to RMI.
As JSON is a purely text-based representation it comes with a higher overhead than the previously shown serialization approaches. The advantage is that it is more lightweight than XML and it has good support for describing metadata. The Listing below shows our person object represented in JSON.
XML for sure is the standard format for exchanging data in heterogeneous systems. One nice feature of XML is the out-of-the-box support for data validation, which is especially important in integration scenarios. The amount of metadata, however, can become really high – depending on the used mapping. All data is transferred in text format by default. However the usage of CDATA tags enables us to send binary data. The listing below shows our person object in XML. As you can see the metadata overhead is quite high.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
Fast InfoSet is becoming a very interesting alternative to XML. It is more or less a lightweight version of XML, which reduces unnecessary overhead and redundancies in data. This leads to smaller data set and better serialization and deserialization performance.
When working with JAX-WS 2.0 you can enable Fast InfoSet serialization by using the @FastInfoset annotation. Web Service stacks then automatically detect whether it can be used for cross service communication using HTTP Accept headers.
When looking at data serialized using Fast InfoSet the main difference you will notice is that there are no end tags. After their first occurrence there are only referenced by an index. There are a number of other indexes for content, namespaces etc.
Data is prefixed with its length. This allows faster and more efficient parsing. Additionally binary data can avoid being serialized in base64 encoding as in an XML.
In tests with standard documents the transfer size could be shrunk down to only 20 percent of the original size and the serialization speed could be doubled. The listing below shows our person object now serialized with Fast InfoSet. For Illustration purposes I skipped the processing instructions and I used a textual representation instead of binary values. Values in curly braces refer to indexed values. Values in brackets refer to the use of an index.
The real advantage however can be seen when we look what the next address object would look like. As the listing below shows we can work mostly with index data only.
Object graphs can get quite tricky to serialize. This form of serialization is not supported by all protocols. As we need to work with reference to entities, the language used by the serialization approach must provide a proper language construct. While this is no problem in serialization formats which are used for (binary) RPC-style interactions, it is often not supported out-of-the-box by text-based protocols. XML itself, for example, supports serializing object graphs using references. The WS-I however forbids the usage of the required language construct.
If a serialization strategy does not support this feature it can lead to performance and functional problems, as entities get serialized individually for each occurrence of a reference. If we are, for example, serializing addresses which have reference to country information, this information will then be serialized for each and every address object leading to large serialization sizes.
Today there are numerous variants to serialize data in Java. While binary serialization keeps being the most efficient approach, modern text-based formats like JSON or Fast Infoset provide valid alternatives – especially when interoperability is a primary concern. Modern frameworks often allow using multiple serialization strategies at the same time. So the approach can even be selected dynamically at runtime.
- Behind the scenes of ASP.NET MVC 2 – Understand the internals to build better apps With Visual Studio 2010, Microsoft is shipping the next version...
- 52 weeks of Application Performance – The dynaTrace Almanac 2010 is over and there has been a log going...
- 7 Rules to Improve your Application Performance Practices In this post I discuss the seven most important steps...
- Is There a Business Case for Application Performance? We all know that slow performance – and service disruption...
- Applying Maslow’s Pyramid to Application Performance This time I take an a bit unconventional approach towards...
With an estimated 50 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2020, several industries will begin to expand their capabilities for retaining end point data at the edge to better utilize the range of data types and sheer volume of M2M data generated by the Internet of Things. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and President of Infobright, will discuss the infrastructures businesses will need to implement to handle this explosion of data by providing specific use cases for filte...
Feb. 8, 2016 08:00 PM EST Reads: 129
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pythian, a global IT services company specializing in helping companies adopt disruptive technologies to optimize revenue-generating systems, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Founded in 1997, Pythian is a global IT services company that helps companies compete by adopting disruptive technologies such as cloud, Big Data, advanced analytics, and DevO...
Feb. 8, 2016 06:30 PM EST Reads: 161
SYS-CON Events announced today that VAI, a leading ERP software provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. VAI (Vormittag Associates, Inc.) is a leading independent mid-market ERP software developer renowned for its flexible solutions and ability to automate critical business functions for the distribution, manufacturing, specialty retail and service sectors. An IBM Premier Business Part...
Feb. 8, 2016 03:00 PM EST Reads: 573
SYS-CON Events announced today that Alert Logic, Inc., the leading provider of Security-as-a-Service solutions for the cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Alert Logic, Inc., provides Security-as-a-Service for on-premises, cloud, and hybrid infrastructures, delivering deep security insight and continuous protection for customers at a lower cost than traditional security solutions. Ful...
Feb. 8, 2016 02:00 PM EST Reads: 375
In most cases, it is convenient to have some human interaction with a web (micro-)service, no matter how small it is. A traditional approach would be to create an HTTP interface, where user requests will be dispatched and HTML/CSS pages must be served. This approach is indeed very traditional for a web site, but not really convenient for a web service, which is not intended to be good looking, 24x7 up and running and UX-optimized. Instead, talking to a web service in a chat-bot mode would be muc...
Feb. 8, 2016 02:00 PM EST Reads: 207
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed...
Feb. 8, 2016 02:00 PM EST Reads: 341
[session] From Build to Scale: Lifecycle of Microservices By @fortyfivan | @CloudExpo #Microservices
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes ho...
Feb. 8, 2016 01:30 PM EST Reads: 172
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 ad...
Feb. 8, 2016 12:45 PM EST Reads: 356
Advances in technology and ubiquitous connectivity have made the utilization of a dispersed workforce more common. Whether that remote team is located across the street or country, management styles/ approaches will have to be adjusted to accommodate this new dynamic. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Sagi Brody, Chief Technology Officer at Webair Internet Development Inc., focused on the challenges of managing remote teams, providing real-world examples that demonstrate what works and what do...
Feb. 8, 2016 12:30 PM EST Reads: 234
[session] Focusing on Time-to-Value in Big Data Deployments By @AndyWarfield | @BigDataExpo #BigData
As enterprises work to take advantage of Big Data technologies, they frequently become distracted by product-level decisions. In most new Big Data builds this approach is completely counter-productive: it presupposes tools that may not be a fit for development teams, forces IT to take on the burden of evaluating and maintaining unfamiliar technology, and represents a major up-front expense. In his session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Andrew Warfield, CTO and Co-Founder of Coho Data, will dis...
Feb. 8, 2016 12:30 PM EST Reads: 142
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Feb. 8, 2016 12:00 PM EST Reads: 156
SYS-CON Events announced today that Commvault, a global leader in enterprise data protection and information management, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Commvault is a leading provider of data protection and information management...
Feb. 8, 2016 10:45 AM EST Reads: 383
SYS-CON Events announced today that AppNeta, the leader in performance insight for business-critical web applications, will exhibit and present at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. AppNeta is the only application performance monitoring (APM) company to provide solutions for all applications – applications you develop internally, business-critical SaaS applications you use and the networks that deli...
Feb. 8, 2016 10:15 AM EST Reads: 364
It's easy to assume that your app will run on a fast and reliable network. The reality for your app's users, though, is often a slow, unreliable network with spotty coverage. What happens when the network doesn't work, or when the device is in airplane mode? You get unhappy, frustrated users. An offline-first app is an app that works, without error, when there is no network connection.
Feb. 8, 2016 09:45 AM EST Reads: 169
Father business cycles and digital consumers are forcing enterprises to respond faster to customer needs and competitive demands. Successful integration of DevOps and Agile development will be key for business success in today’s digital economy. In his session at DevOps Summit, Pradeep Prabhu, Co-Founder & CEO of Cloudmunch, covered the critical practices that enterprises should consider to seamlessly integrate Agile and DevOps processes, barriers to implementing this in the enterprise, and pr...
Feb. 8, 2016 09:30 AM EST Reads: 333
The cloud promises new levels of agility and cost-savings for Big Data, data warehousing and analytics. But it’s challenging to understand all the options – from IaaS and PaaS to newer services like HaaS (Hadoop as a Service) and BDaaS (Big Data as a Service). In her session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Hannah Smalltree, a director at Cazena, will provide an educational overview of emerging “as-a-service” options for Big Data in the cloud. This is critical background for IT and data profes...
Feb. 8, 2016 09:30 AM EST Reads: 157
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Feb. 8, 2016 09:15 AM EST Reads: 200
How Best to Integrate Cloud Foundry into Your Existing Ecosystem By @Gidrontxt | @DevOpsSummit #DevOps
As someone who has been dedicated to automation and Application Release Automation (ARA) technology for almost six years now, one of the most common questions I get asked regards Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS). Specifically, people want to know whether release automation is still needed when a PaaS is in place, and why. Isn't that what a PaaS provides? A solution to the deployment and runtime challenges of an application? Why would anyone using a PaaS then need an automation engine with workflow ...
Feb. 8, 2016 07:00 AM EST Reads: 145
SYS-CON Events announced today that Fusion, a leading provider of cloud services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Fusion, a leading provider of integrated cloud solutions to small, medium and large businesses, is the industry's single source for the cloud. Fusion's advanced, proprietary cloud service platform enables the integration of leading edge solutions in the cloud, including clou...
Feb. 6, 2016 03:30 PM EST Reads: 739
Your business relies on your applications and your employees to stay in business. Whether you develop apps or manage business critical apps that help fuel your business, what happens when users experience sluggish performance? You and all technical teams across the organization – application, network, operations, among others, as well as, those outside the organization, like ISPs and third-party providers – are called in to solve the problem.
Feb. 6, 2016 02:00 PM EST Reads: 698