Click here to close now.


IoT User Interface Authors: Adrian Bridgwater, AppDynamics Blog, Brad Thies, Flint Brenton, Sanjay Zalavadia

Related Topics: IoT User Interface, Java IoT

IoT User Interface: Article

Struts Validations Framework Using AJAX

Real-time data validation is one of the advantages of AJAX technology

Real-time data validation is one of the advantages of AJAX technology. By applying this technology, the struts validation framework will enrich the struts MVC and move the Web application closer to the desktop application.

The validation framework is used to validate fields. There are many ways to do validation on a Web application. It falls into two categories: server-side and client-side. A struts validation framework is one of the best frameworks for a Java-based Web application environment. It can configure the application using server-side validation and employ the error message that renders on the validation process invoked during the request processing time, or it can do client-side validation by using the JavaScript rendered on the requested page.

AJAX is a JavaScript technology that can asynchronously call the server and fetch the XML documents that are so popular lately. One of its uses is real-time data validation.

This article is concerned with enriching the existing struts validation framework with AJAX. A few components, such as a controller, have to be developed to select the validation framework and render the specific format message for the client side and a taglib to handle the error message rendering.

You'll need a Windows system with Eclipse and the Tomcat application server. Make sure that the MSXML 3.0 ActiveX object is registered on your operating system. You'll also need the Struts library ( and the JDOM library ( for XML development (see Figure 1 and Figure 2).

Server-Side Scenario
We have to extend the class from org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet to get the servletMapping variable that stores the information on how the extension will be formatted for action classes into the action path as a browser address. When the code is added, we have to configure web.xml as a Web application descriptor for the application server.

The web.xml configuration:


The StrutsActionServlet Java code looks like this:

public class StrutsActionServlet extends the ActionServlet.
public String getServletMapping() {
return this.servletMapping;

To support the existing Struts framework in the first step, we have to extend the RequestProcessor from the Struts package. We have to customize the request processor because we have to distinguish how we're going to do the validation - by using the existing Struts framework or the AJAX concept - and because we'll be making a contract between the server and client on how to interpret the message. In the message rendering we'll use the XML format, which is a good media messaging format. The definition of the XML format we'll apply is:

XML Format
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<identity name=messageAreaId>


  • Identity is the ID for the client JavaScript to acknowledge where the message will be placed.
  • Description is the result after the error message rendering from the server side.
First we need to get the servlet mapping configuration from the Web descriptor before moving onto the process mapping. After invoking the process, the application will prepare the instance of the form that inherits from the AjaxForm class. The processing manages AJAX validation and should check to ensure that the request from the client isn't using the struts validation framework. Other processes to perform during the request are process populate for collecting the information sent by the client into the action form, and process validation by using the method from the existing Struts validation framework that already exists in the parent class of AjaxValidationRequestProcessor (TilesRequestProcessor).

The validation process from the TilesRequestProcessor will invoke all the validation based on the struts validation framework and store the action errors into the request. What we need is to parse the action errors into pieces and generate the XML message validation that will be sent to the client side. Since we want to change the behavior of how the validation will be backed, the validation process should check the indicator of the validation framework being used (see Figure 3).

Generate the XML messages using JDOM as the processing engine. As shown in Figure 4, when the process validation is invoked and the condition of the validation framework is equal with the AJAX validation framework, the process will continue to populate the error message and build the XML message validation.

This class handles the functionality of the XML message builder. This Java class will be building the XML message based on the identity and description property. After the caller invokes the buildXMLMessage, it will prepare the document and set the root element of the XML message. This class also has an addNextXMLMessage function to add more validation messages into the XML (see Listing 1).

The process method will set the content type of the response as "text/xml" and send the XML message as a string. The function of the process on the AjaxValidationRequestProcessor code will look like Listing 2.

The processValidation method will populate the action errors and construct the message based on the format contract of the XML for the client. The function of processValidation on AjaxValidationRequestProcessor code will be look like:

ActionErrors errors = (ActionErrors) request.getAttribute(Globals.ERROR_KEY);
Locale locale = (Locale) request.getAttribute(Globals.LOCALE_KEY);
generateXMLMessage(errors, identity, locale, sbXMLMessage);

Client-Side Scenario
Build the Taglib Component

  • AjaxJavaScriptLibraryTag: The taglib component to render the JavaScript function at the client side for basic XMLHTTP controller functions.
  • AjaxErrorHtmlRenderTag: The taglib component to render the area of the error message at the JSP page.
Configuring the Taglib Definition
After developing the taglib component, we need to configure the taglib tld file as shown in Listing 3.

Build JSP and Struts Configuration
To simulate the result of the validation processing, we first need to build the presentation layer by incorporating the taglib that we've build. In this case I'm trying to give an example validation by using the validation rules component from Struts, and also the validation that comes from the form itself. Prepare five textboxs under the JSP page. The first to fourth textbox are using the validation rule configuration, and the fifth textbox is using the validate process from the action form. Other than that, we also need a submit button to simulate that after submitting the form, the existing struts validation are still working without AJAX. The user interface will look like Figure 5.

More Stories By Sonny Hastomo

Sonny Hastomo is an IT architect at Sun Microsystems, Indonesia, for the telecommunication industry division. His currently is focusing on providing solution design, sizing, implementation, consulting services, and quality support to customers in their evaluation of their IT challenges.

Comments (9) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

Most Recent Comments
hanan mahmoud 07/27/08 03:39:45 AM EDT

hi all
its realy great article and it helped me to understand validation in ajax better ,i just hope if any one have sample code about that topic because till now i don't know how to find one and also i don't know where to put the code samples in the article so plz help me

Commenter 05/17/06 01:40:52 PM EDT

I just need examples, and I can´t find it here. This article is weak.

SYS-CON Belgium News Desk 05/02/06 03:27:56 PM EDT

Struts Validations Framework Using AJAX
Real-time data validation is one of the advantages of AJAX technology. By applying this technology, the struts validation framework will enrich the struts MVC and move the Web application closer to the desktop application.

SYS-CON Australia News Desk 05/02/06 01:44:38 PM EDT

Real-time data validation is one of the advantages of AJAX technology. By applying this technology, the struts validation framework will enrich the struts MVC and move the Web application closer to the desktop application.

AJAX News Desk 05/02/06 12:55:46 PM EDT

AjaxWorld: Struts Validations Framework Using AJAX
Real-time data validation is one of the advantages of AJAX technology. By applying this technology, the struts validation framework will enrich the struts MVC and move the Web application closer to the desktop application.

Rajesh 05/02/06 12:17:24 PM EDT

The article was really nice.It would have been better if the source code was included.


waikit 02/08/06 04:11:11 AM EST

can I have a sample code of the example shown in this article, please


SYS-CON Australia News Desk 01/27/06 02:21:45 PM EST

Real-time data validation is one of the advantages of AJAX technology. By applying this technology, the struts validation framework will enrich the struts MVC and move the Web application closer to the desktop application.

Artem Vasiliev 01/26/06 06:18:56 AM EST

Sonnie, thank you for your article, it brings pretty interesting idea.
It would be great to see some sample application (with source code of course) implementing this approach. I even thought that I would find as a source code for the article, but seems like JDJ doesn't have such practice. Sonnie, can you provide that? It could be an archive hosted somewhere, here or at some free hosting, e.g.

@CloudExpo Stories
Microservices are a very exciting architectural approach that many organizations are looking to as a way to accelerate innovation. Microservices promise to allow teams to move away from monolithic "ball of mud" systems, but the reality is that, in the vast majority of organizations, different projects and technologies will continue to be developed at different speeds. How to handle the dependencies between these disparate systems with different iteration cycles? Consider the "canoncial problem"...
Culture is the most important ingredient of DevOps. The challenge for most organizations is defining and communicating a vision of beneficial DevOps culture for their organizations, and then facilitating the changes needed to achieve that. Often this comes down to an ability to provide true leadership. As a CIO, are your direct reports IT managers or are they IT leaders? The hard truth is that many IT managers have risen through the ranks based on their technical skills, not their leadership ab...
I recently attended and was a speaker at the 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center. I also had the opportunity to attend this event last year and I wrote a blog from that show talking about how the “Enterprise Impact of IoT” was a key theme of last year’s show. I was curious to see if the same theme would still resonate 365 days later and what, if any, changes I would see in the content presented.
Apps and devices shouldn't stop working when there's limited or no network connectivity. Learn how to bring data stored in a cloud database to the edge of the network (and back again) whenever an Internet connection is available. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Ben Perlmutter, a Sales Engineer with IBM Cloudant, demonstrated techniques for replicating cloud databases with devices in order to build offline-first mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) apps that can provide a better, faster user e...
In his General Session at DevOps Summit, Asaf Yigal, Co-Founder & VP of Product at, explored the value of Kibana 4 for log analysis and provided a hands-on tutorial on how to set up Kibana 4 and get the most out of Apache log files. He examined three use cases: IT operations, business intelligence, and security and compliance. Asaf Yigal is co-founder and VP of Product at log analytics software company In the past, he was co-founder of social-trading platform Currensee, which...
Discussions of cloud computing have evolved in recent years from a focus on specific types of cloud, to a world of hybrid cloud, and to a world dominated by the APIs that make today's multi-cloud environments and hybrid clouds possible. In this Power Panel at 17th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the importance of customers being able to use the specific technologies they need, through environments and ecosystems that expose their APIs to make true ...
In recent years, at least 40% of companies using cloud applications have experienced data loss. One of the best prevention against cloud data loss is backing up your cloud data. In his General Session at 17th Cloud Expo, Sam McIntyre, Partner Enablement Specialist at eFolder, presented how organizations can use eFolder Cloudfinder to automate backups of cloud application data. He also demonstrated how easy it is to search and restore cloud application data using Cloudfinder.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty ...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
Cloud computing delivers on-demand resources that provide businesses with flexibility and cost-savings. The challenge in moving workloads to the cloud has been the cost and complexity of ensuring the initial and ongoing security and regulatory (PCI, HIPAA, FFIEC) compliance across private and public clouds. Manual security compliance is slow, prone to human error, and represents over 50% of the cost of managing cloud applications. Determining how to automate cloud security compliance is critical...
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Day 2 Keynote at 17th Cloud Expo, San...
As organizations shift towards IT-as-a-service models, the need for managing & protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and now cloud environments grows with it. CommVault can ensure protection & E-Discovery of your data - whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud, or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enterprise.
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
Today air travel is a minefield of delays, hassles and customer disappointment. Airlines struggle to revitalize the experience. GE and M2Mi will demonstrate practical examples of how IoT solutions are helping airlines bring back personalization, reduce trip time and improve reliability. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Dr. Sarah Cooper, M2Mi’s VP Business Development and Engineering, explored the IoT cloud-based platform technologies driving t...
There are over 120 breakout sessions in all, with Keynotes, General Sessions, and Power Panels adding to three days of incredibly rich presentations and content. Join @ThingsExpo conference chair Roger Strukhoff (@IoT2040), June 7-9, 2016 in New York City, for three days of intense 'Internet of Things' discussion and focus, including Big Data's indespensable role in IoT, Smart Grids and Industrial Internet of Things, Wearables and Consumer IoT, as well as (new) IoT's use in Vertical Markets.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data...
We all know that data growth is exploding and storage budgets are shrinking. Instead of showing you charts on about how much data there is, in his General Session at 17th Cloud Expo, Scott Cleland, Senior Director of Product Marketing at HGST, showed how to capture all of your data in one place. After you have your data under control, you can then analyze it in one place, saving time and resources.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Alert Logic, Inc., the leading provider of Security-as-a-Service solutions for the cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Alert Logic, Inc., provides Security-as-a-Service for on-premises, cloud, and hybrid infrastructures, delivering deep security insight and continuous protection for customers at a lower cost than traditional security solutions. Ful...
Just over a week ago I received a long and loud sustained applause for a presentation I delivered at this year’s Cloud Expo in Santa Clara. I was extremely pleased with the turnout and had some very good conversations with many of the attendees. Over the next few days I had many more meaningful conversations and was not only happy with the results but also learned a few new things. Here is everything I learned in those three days distilled into three short points.
As organizations realize the scope of the Internet of Things, gaining key insights from Big Data, through the use of advanced analytics, becomes crucial. However, IoT also creates the need for petabyte scale storage of data from millions of devices. A new type of Storage is required which seamlessly integrates robust data analytics with massive scale. These storage systems will act as “smart systems” provide in-place analytics that speed discovery and enable businesses to quickly derive meaningf...