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Java IoT: Article

Integrating AJAX with the JMX Notification Framework

Opposite Ends of the Systems Management Stack

The repaintable 'status' area of the screen is defined as follows:

<span id="adminBanner" class="style1"></span>

'adminBanner' will be used to identify the repaintable area when the XML response is parsed and the message extracted.

The initAdmin() method schedules a JavaScript method, trapAlert(), to be executed after callbackTimeout milliseconds:

function setCallback() {
callBack = setTimeout('trapAlert()',callbackTimeout);
}

function initAdmin() {
setCallback();
}

It's the trapAlert() method that initiates the XMLHttpRequest with the now familiar ring:

function trapAlert() {
if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
req = new XMLHttpRequest();
} else if (window.ActiveXObject) {
req = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
}

req.onreadystatechange = processRequest;
req.open("GET", './admin?reqid=0', true);
req.send(null);
}

HTTP GET is used to read data (only a small request parameter is used), and the admin servlet is targeted. The request is asynchronous, and when the request state changes, the processRequest JavaScript function is invoked:

req.onreadystatechange = processRequest;

It might seem reasonable to wait for a response before continuing processing. However, you run the risk of having your script hang if a network or server problem prevents completion of the transaction. An asynchronous call with the onreadystatechange event is more resilient.

As the request cycles through to completion, the processRequest event handler is invoked:

function processRequest() {
if (req.readyState == 4) {
if (req.status == 200) {
parseMessages();
}
....
setCallback(); // only do this when complete
}
}

Listing 1 shows the available status codes. When the request is complete and HTTP status code 200 (OK) is returned, the parseMessages() method is called to extract the data from the XML message. Then the trapAlert() method is rescheduled again. If the XML response has a different retry interval, this will have been set by the parseMessages() function.

Parse XML Response and Repaint Screen
The parseMessages() function first extracts the XML response

response = req.responseXML;

and extracts the elements for alert status, alert text, and retry interval:

itemStatus = response.getElementsByTagName('status')[0].firstChild.nodeValue;
itemText = response.getElementsByTagName('textBody')[0].firstChild.nodeValue;
callbackTimeout =
parseInt(response.getElementsByTagName('callBack')[0].firstChild.nodeValue);

The alert text is then repainted on to the adminBanner document element (see above):

document.getElementById("adminBanner").innerHTML = itemText;

The alert message appears on the screen as shown in Figure 3.

Servlet Formats the XML Response
For the browser to display management alerts to the user, XMLHttpRequest is used to request the management state.

When the browser sends the request, the servlet uses the MBean helper to check the alert state and, if an alert is available, constructs an XML document as a response.

If there's no state to return, the response status is set as follows:

response.setStatus(HttpServletResponse.SC_NO_CONTENT);

Otherwise the text/XML response type is set:

response.setContentType("text/xml");

Listing 2 shows the servlet method in full.

When the servlet is invoked and the XML content returned, the console should print:

Received alert: alert.broadcast
<message><status>1</status><textBody><![CDATA[System Down in 10
Minutes]]></textBody><callBack>10000</callBack></message>

Capacity Modelling and Security
Because AJAX opens up the architecture in interesting ways, two key areas require elaboration:

  • Capacity Modelling
  • Security
Caching and response message type (XML or text) can also be important.

Capacity Modelling
AJAX-enabled rich clients won't necessarily submit requests any more frequently than before. But with XMLHttpRequest executed asynchronously in the browser, the number of HTTP requests to the server increases in line with the retry interval.

  • Retry interval (Think Time) = 20 seconds
  • Number of connected users = 5000
  • Transactions per second (TPS) = 5000/20 = 250
We expect an extra 250 requests (transactions) per second generated from the HTTP user base.

Of course, it depends what these requests do at the server to increase latency in response time. In our example, each request must look up MBean properties and format an XML response, but the response is very small and the MBean is in local memory. With each Web server thread able to handle approximately 200 GET requests a second, and the user requests load balanced across a J2EE server cluster of perhaps 200 threads, the increased loading isn't significant.

When modelling AJAX architectures, increased load injection can be offset by reduced bandwidth, since the response contains data only in contrast to data plus mark-up.

Security
Suppose you only wanted users in the WebUser group to access the Admin servlet?

If only authenticated users can access the admin servlet, then the XMLHttpRequest will run as that user if that user has authenticated.

For example, once user Joe logs into the application, and Joe is a member of group WebUser, the XMLHttpRequest will be able to invoke the Admin servlet.

Adding the following code to the admin servlet would confirm the authenticated subject, returning true and Joe respectively:

request.isUserInRole("WebUser");
request.getRemoteUser();

More Stories By Graham P. Harrison

Previously a Senior Consultant with BEA, Graham is the author of Dynamic Web Programming using Java (Prentice Hall, 2000) in addition to a number of articles for the Java Developers Journal and IBM DeveloperWorks. He has a focus on Enterprise Architecture, Performance Tuning and Capacity Planning

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