|By Andreas Grabner||
|August 30, 2010 03:50 PM EDT||
What factors make you think a web page is good or not? What keeps on that page longer than others? On the one hand it is the content on the page and whether this content is of interest to you. On the other it is the velocity with which you can navigate through the individual pages. High-Speed internet and performance-optimized pages make our day-to-day browsing easier when accessing our emails, tweets, latest updates on sports or news. With all the changes in the recent years in Web Performance Optimization (WPO) we’ve been spoiled by those sites that follow all these Best Practices and boosted their web site experience. No wonder that we start losing our patience with a site that doesn’t respond as fast as we’ve come to expect.
For this particular reason Google modified their ranking algorithm to now also include web performance as one of their metrics. The speed of a web page – the time from entering the URL in the browser until the page has been fully loaded – has now become one factor that defines whether your site shows up on the top or on the bottom of a search result. A good reason to pick “fast by default” as the main theme for this year’s Velocity 2010 Conference. Steve Souders – the driving force behind Web Performance Optimization – hosted this conference and it became clear the significant impact Web Site Performance has on end user behavior and thus the success of a web site.
At last year’s Velocity the first results on Business Impact of Performance were presented to the public. Microsoft, Yahoo and Google presented their results of their internal tests that showed that slower pages have a direct impact on banner clicks – and therefore generated revenue. On the contrary – Shopzilla presented the results of a web site overhaul showing how a faster web site positively impacts the number of users, time spent on site, number of clicks and generated revenue.
Who is faster? Who is better? Bild.de or Spiegel.de?
Similar to my analysis of the FIFA World Cup Website, the Golf Masters or the web site for the Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver I wanted to take a closer look at the two biggest German news portals: Bild.de and Spiegel.de.
Based on Alexa, these are the top two news portals in Germany. Both portals probably have a very different reader community as both publishers have a different way to “present” news. My analysis focuses on how well these pages follow the Best Practices on Web Performance Optimization – therefore the actual content doesn’t matter, as it is all about how to deliver the content. Both pages deliver high-volume, multimedia content. Both pages make money with online ads and therefore it is in their interest that many users visit their site, stay as long as possible on their site and click as many ads as possible. We’ve learned from Google, Bing, etc… that speed is a critical factor in keeping user on the page – now let’s see how these two sites do:
There are three great and free tools available that we can use for an analysis like this:
- dynaTrace AJAX Edition for Internet Explorer 7, 6 & 8
- YSlow for FireFox
- PageSpeed for FireFox and Chrome
All three tools analyze individual web sites based on the Best Practices from dynaTrace, Yahoo and Google and provide a nice overview on whether the rules discussed in these documents were met or not.
The Test scenario
On both sites – www.bild.de and www.spiegel.de – I looked at two individual pages: the start page and the overview page for politics. Important for my testing is to start with a cleared browser cache in order to analyze the page as a First Time Visitor. It is recommended to run the same test again – this time with a primed browser cache – and then compare the timings.
Using any of the three mentioned tools is rather simple. dynaTrace AJAX allows me to record a complete browser session which includes all 4 pages I am testing. The following screenshot shows the Performance Report that is opened when double clicking on the recorded session showing the four tested pages:
We can make the following interesting observations:
- Both sites have a First Impression Time of less than 2 seconds. This means that it takes less than 2 seconds until the user gets a first visual impression of the website – which is considered acceptable
- The Fully Loaded Time of both start pages is very high – both take about 14 seconds to fully load. The main reason for this is the amount of multimedia content (mainly images)
- Bild.de requires 289 HTTP Requests to fully load – that’s 113 more than Spiegel.de
- The full page size of bild.de is 4.6MB. That is 2.5 times more than Spiegel.de which “only” has 1.8MB
Lifetime of a Web Page
The following two screenshots show the dynaTrace Timeline for the start page of Bild.de and Spiegel.de:
There are some fundamental differences between the two start pages:
- Bild.de uses multiple domains to deliver multimedia content, e.g.: bilder.bild.de or newscase.bild.de. Splitting content on multiple domains is a Best Practice that is called Domain Sharding. It has the advantage of letting the browser use more physical network connections to download more content in parallel
- Spiegel.de delivers most of its multimedia content from the primary www.spiegel.de domain which is the bottleneck of their deployment. A browser has a limited number of physical network connections to a single domain, e.g: IE 7 uses 2 connections. If there are more than 2 resources to be downloaded from a domain they need to get queued up and have to wait for a connection to become available. Domain Sharding solves this problem by splitting content on multiple domains
- both pages have individual resources that take extraordinarily long to load, e.g.: initial HTML page and CSS files on spiegel.de or 2 Flash components on bild.de
- Bild.de shows a constantly high rendering activity – caused by animated images as well as the large number of images on that page
Key Performance Indicators
Additionally to the performance metrics as shown in the dynaTrace AJAX Performance Report Overview the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) tab shows a set of additional important KPI’s:
As mentioned earlier, bild.de requires many HTTP Roundtrips (289) in order to load the full page. The number one rule in Web Performance Optimization says to minimize HTTP Roundtrips. 289 roundtrips from browser to server is definitely too much. Every roundtrip needs to wait on a free physical network connection (read more on The Two HTTP Connection Limit Issue). Every roundtrip includes the overhead of network latency between browser and server as well as the overhead of the HTTP Protocol itself (HTTP Headers very often contribute a large percentage of the total roundtrip size).
The KPI Report also shows how many resources (images, CSS, …) are being cached or have to be retrieved from the server every time. The first table shows that 80 resources do not use any browser cache headers. That means that these resources have to be re-downloaded on every subsequent visit of the same user.
Usage of the Browser Cache
The Browser Caching Tab on the dynaTrace AJAX Performance Report performs a detailed analysis of HTTP Cache Headers on every downloaded resource. It is recommended to read Best Practices on Browser Caching which explains available browser caching options.
Bild.de and Spiegel.de don’t make optimal use of the browser cache. The following illustration shows a list of all resources that have no cache setting, a cache setting with a past date or a very short cache expiration date:
Obviously it doesn’t make sense to cache every image on a page. Images that have a short life time should not fill up the local browser cache unnecessarily. If we have a closer look at some of the images on these pages here it seems that at least some of them could be cached for a longer time as they won’t change that frequently. The following section of the website shows images that are cached only shortly (< 48 hours):
These logos will probably not change every 2 days – therefore it makes sense to specify a Far-Future Expiration Header. This reduces the number of roundtrips for revisiting users.
Reducing HTTP Roundtrips
I talked about this several times now – the top rule is to reduce network roundtrips. Besides making use of the browser’s cache there are other ways to reduce the roundtrips for every user (not just revisiting). dynaTrace AJAX has the Network tab that shows those roundtrips that are considered “unnecessary”:
HTTP Redirects allow implementing some important use cases, e.g.: authentication, short memorable URLs or end-user monitoring. Too often though HTTP Redirects are caused by wrong configuration settings on the web server. Redirects that can be avoided are a great way to improve web site performance. On the start page of spiegel.de we have 5 redirects – bild.de has 7. A redirect means an additional HTTP Roundtrip as the browser needs to follow the redirect and request another URL in order to get to the originally requested resource.
Reducing resources not only brings the advantage of fewer roundtrips. It also means that fewer resources need to be downloaded from the same domain which reduces waiting time (remember the limitation of 2 connections per domain on IE7 mentioned earlier in this blog?).
Even though the majority of the content on a news site is static for at least a while (new news doesn’t arrive every second) there is enough content that needs to be generated dynamically for every user. Examples for this are any type of ticker information, weather or personalized ads.
dynaTrace identifies dynamic content based on the rules defined in Best Practice on Server-Side Performance. All these requests are listed on the Server-Side tab in the Performance Report. The Server-Time is the time also known as Time-To-First-Byte. It is the time from the last byte of the HTTP Request sent until the first byte of the response is received. This also includes network latency between the browser and the server – it is however the closest you can get to the server-time without actually measuring the time on the server. The following illustration shows the dynamic resources of bild.de:
The slowest requests are stock information requests, the initial page request itself as well as the weather information. We also see some requests to an external ad-service and requests to a web-tracking service (not visible in the screenshot above). Server-side performance mainly becomes an issue for dynamically generated content – and usually only in a scenario where many users want to access data from the server. In this case it becomes an even bigger problem because it prevents a larger number of users to actually click on those ads that generate revenue.
Top 10 Performance Problems taken from Zappos, Monster, Thomson and Co lists the typical server-side performance problems and shows how to prevent them.
Conclusion: Who delivers the fastest News?
In our tests, neither site does particularly well. Both sites deliver lots of content without following the Best Practices on Browser Caching or Network Roundtrips. The fully-loaded time of both pages is very high with 14 seconds each (obviously this also depends on your connection speed). Both sites deliver an acceptable first visual impression (<2 seconds).
dynaTrace, PageSpeed and YSlow allow uploading performance results to ShowSlow. ShowSlow is an Open Source Platform and can be used as performance repository for web metrics. ShowSlow.com hosts a public instance of the ShowSlow server and allows you to upload and compare results:
The difference in ranking and grading is that every tool puts the focus on different rules. dynaTrace puts its focus on load time first and then on rules such as browser caching or network roundtrips. YSlow and PageSpeed focus more on the Best Practice rules. A good mix of tool usage is therefore recommended – especially because no tool supports every browser anyway.
Now – who is the winner of this analysis? Let’s hope it is us – the readers of these online news portals. With the result of this analysis, with the help of the tools and with the help of people like Steve Souders, Web Site Performance is put in the spotlight and will ultimately lead to better and faster websites:
Performance == More Users == More Revenue
- How better Caching helps Frankfurt’s Airport Website to handle additional load caused by the Volcano Along with so many others I am stranded in Europe...
- Hands-On Guide: Verifying FIFA World Cup Web Site against Performance Best Practices Whether you call it Football, Futbol, Fussball, Futebol, Calcio or...
- Video on Common Performance Antipatterns online [caption id="attachment_1020" align="alignleft" width="250" caption="Parleys - Common Performance Antipatterns"][/caption] Last...
- Thomson Reuters on How they deliver High Performance Online Services We have had some great Webinars with our customers in...
- www.utah.travel in minutes">How to analyze and speed up content rich web sites likes www.utah.travel in minutes One of my daily activities is checking interesting blog posts...
SaaS companies can greatly expand revenue potential by pushing beyond their own borders. The challenge is how to do this without degrading service quality. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Adam Rogers, Managing Director at Anexia, discussed how IaaS providers with a global presence and both virtual and dedicated infrastructure can help companies expand their service footprint with low “go-to-market” costs.
Jun. 25, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 598
The initial debate is over: Any enterprise with a serious commitment to IT is migrating to the cloud. But things are not so simple. There is a complex mix of on-premises, colocated, and public-cloud deployments. In this power panel at 18th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Randy De Meno, Chief Technologist - Windows Products and Microsoft Partnerships at Commvault; Dave Landa, Chief Operating Officer at kintone; William Morrish, General Manager Product Sales at Interou...
Jun. 24, 2016 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 606
You are moving to the Cloud. The question is not if, it’s when. Now that your competitors are in the cloud and lapping you, your “when” better hurry up and get here. But saying and doing are two different things. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, Robert Reeves, CTO of Datical, explained how DevOps can be your onramp to the cloud. By adopting simple, platform independent DevOps strategies, you can accelerate your move to the cloud. Spoiler Alert: He also makes sure you don’t...
Jun. 24, 2016 08:00 PM EDT Reads: 783
What does it look like when you have access to cloud infrastructure and platform under the same roof? Let’s talk about the different layers of Technology as a Service: who cares, what runs where, and how does it all fit together. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Phil Jackson, Lead Technology Evangelist at SoftLayer, an IBM company, spoke about the picture being painted by IBM Cloud and how the tools being crafted can help fill the gaps in your IT infrastructure.
Jun. 24, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 427
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jun. 24, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 323
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes ho...
Jun. 24, 2016 01:30 PM EDT Reads: 740
SYS-CON Events announced today that ReadyTalk, a leading provider of online conferencing and webinar services, has been named Vendor Presentation Sponsor at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ReadyTalk delivers audio and web conferencing services that inspire collaboration and enable the Future of Work for today’s increasingly digital and mobile workforce. By combining intuitive, innovative tec...
Jun. 24, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,282
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their backend AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT - especially in the connected home and office. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Kocher, founder and managing director of Grey Heron, explained how Amazon is extending its reach to become a major force in IoT by building on its dominant cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strat...
Jun. 24, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,528
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Jun. 24, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 688
Your business relies on your applications and your employees to stay in business. Whether you develop apps or manage business critical apps that help fuel your business, what happens when users experience sluggish performance? You and all technical teams across the organization – application, network, operations, among others, as well as, those outside the organization, like ISPs and third-party providers – are called in to solve the problem.
Jun. 24, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 446
Digital Initiatives create new ways of conducting business, which drive the need for increasingly advanced security and regulatory compliance challenges with exponentially more damaging consequences. In the BMC and Forbes Insights Survey in 2016, 97% of executives said they expect a rise in data breach attempts in the next 12 months. Sixty percent said operations and security teams have only a general understanding of each other’s requirements, resulting in a “SecOps gap” leaving organizations u...
Jun. 24, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 878
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jun. 24, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 560
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his Day 2 Keynote at @ThingsExpo, Henrik Kenani Dahlgren, Portfolio Marketing Manager at Ericsson, discussed how to plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change t...
Jun. 24, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 921
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Jun. 24, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 846
It's easy to assume that your app will run on a fast and reliable network. The reality for your app's users, though, is often a slow, unreliable network with spotty coverage. What happens when the network doesn't work, or when the device is in airplane mode? You get unhappy, frustrated users. An offline-first app is an app that works, without error, when there is no network connection. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Bradley Holt, a Developer Advocate with IBM Cloud Data Services, discussed...
Jun. 24, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 661
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Jun. 24, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,140
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Jun. 24, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,091
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Jun. 24, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 561
The pace of innovation, vendor lock-in, production sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and managing risk… In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Dan Choquette, Founder of RackN, discussed how CIOs are challenged finding the balance of finding the right tools, technology and operational model that serves the business the best. He also discussed how clouds, open source software and infrastructure solutions have benefits but also drawbacks and how workload and operational portability between vendors ...
Jun. 24, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 613
There is little doubt that Big Data solutions will have an increasing role in the Enterprise IT mainstream over time. Big Data at Cloud Expo - to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - has announced its Call for Papers is open. Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is...
Jun. 24, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,186